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ASMOSIA VII

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C O L E

F R A N A I S E

D A T H N E S

Directeur des publications : Dominique Mulliez Adjointe aux publications : Catherine Aubert

Rvision et mise au point des textes :

Y. Maniatis

Lcole franaise dAthnes, qui a contribu lorganisation de la rencontre ASMOSIA VII Thasos, avec le centre Dimokritos, la 18e phorie des antiquits prhistoriques et classiques de Kavala et lIGME, a pris en charge la totalit du cot de fabrication des actes dans sa collection, mais a autoris titre exceptionnel Yannis Maniatis recourir aux normes ditoriales anglo-saxonnes.

Pr-presse et photogravure : Coordination de la fabrication : Impression, reliure : Conception graphique de la couverture :

EFA Velissarios Anagnostopoulos, Thymeli s.n.c. EFA, Velissarios Anagnostopoulos Break In s.a. EFA, Velissarios Anagnostopoulos

Dpositaire : De Boccard dition-Diffusion 11, rue de Mdicis, F 75006 Paris, www.deboccard.com cole franaise dAthnes, 2009 6, rue Didotou, GR 10680 Athnes, www.efa.gr ISBN 978-2-86958-207-1 Reproduction et traduction, mme partielles, interdites sans lautorisation de lditeur pour tous pays, y compris les tats-Unis.

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51

ASMOSIA VIIActes du VIIe colloque international de lASMOSIA Organis par l'cole franaise d'Athnes, le National Center for Scientific Research DIMOKRITOS, la 18e phorie des antiquits prhistoriques et classiques (Kavala) et lInstitute of Geology and Mineral Exploration Thasos, 15-20 septembre 2003

Proceedings of the 7th International Conference of Association for the Study of Marble and Other Stones in Antiquity organized by the French School of Athens, the National Center for Scientific Research DIMOKRITOS, the 18th Ephoreia of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities (Kavala) and the Institute of Geology and Mineral Exploration Thassos, september 15-20, 2003

tudes runies par Yannis MANIATIS

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CONTENTS

Prface Yannis Maniatis

..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

XIII-XVI

ABBREVIATIONS IN BIBLIOGRAPHY .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... XVII

SPECIAL INTRODUCTORY TALKCh. KOUKOULI-CHRYSANTHAKI and S. PAPADOPOULOS .................................................................................................................................................................................................1-18 The island of Thassos and the Aegean in the Prehistory

PART I: ARCHAEOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS USE OF MARBLETh. STEFANIDOU-TIVERIOU ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 19-29 Thassian marble: A connection between Thassos and Thessaloniki E.J. WALTERS .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 31-41 Thassian Julius Caesar G.E BORROMEO, J.J. HERRMANN, Jr. and N. HERZ ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 43-51 Macedonian workmanship on a Thassian marble Hadrian in Providence? J. C. FANT .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 53-57 White marbles in the summer triclinium of the casa del Bracciale dOro, Pompeii J.J. HERRMANN, Jr. and R.H. TYKOT ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 59-75 Some products from the Dokimeion quarries: craters, tables, capitals and statues P.A. BUTZ ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 77-87 The Naxian Colossus at Delos: Same Stone A. BETORI, M. GOMEZ SERITO and P. PENSABENE ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 89-102 Investigation of marbles and stones used in Augustean monuments of western alpine provinces (Italy) F. BIANCHI and M. BRUNO .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 103-111 Flavian amphitheatre: The Cavea and the Portico; Comments about the quality, quantity and the working of its marbles O. PALAGIA, Y. MANIATIS, E. DOTSIKA and D. KAVOUSSANAKI ........................................................................................................................................................... 113-132 New investigations on the pedimental sculptures of the Hieron of Samothrace: A preliminary report V. GAGGADIS-ROBIN, Y. MANIATIS, C. SINTS, D. KAVOUSSANAKI and E. DOTSIKA ...................................................................................... 133-146 Provenance investigation of some marble sarcophagi from Arles with stable isotope and maximum grain sizes analysis

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L. COOK and I. THOMAS ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 147-157 Faustino Corsi and the coloured marbles of Derbyshire F. VAN KEUREN, L.P. GROMET and N. HERZ .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 159-174 Three mythological sarcophagi at the RISD Museum: Marble provenances and iconography

PART II: QUARRIES, QUARRYING TECHNIQUES, GEOLOGY AND STONE PROPERTIESJ.A. HARRELL ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 175-186 The Bokari granodiorite quarry in Egypts eastern desert E. BLOXAM, P. STOREMYR and T. HELDAL .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 187-201 Hard stone quarrying in the Egyptian old Kingdom (3rd Millennium BC): rethinking the social organization T. ENDO and S. NISHIMOTO ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 203-210 The ancient Egyptian quarry at Dibabiya D. KLEMM and R. KLEMM ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 211-225 Pharaonic limestone quarries in Wadi Nakhla and Deir Abu Hennis, Egypt T. HELDAL, P. STOREMYR, E. BLOXAM, I. SHAW, R. LEE and A. SALEM ....................................................................................................................................... 227-241 GPS and GIS methodology in the mapping of Chephrens quarry, Upper Egypt: a significant tool for documentation and interpretation of the site P. STOREMYR, T. HELDAL, E. BLOXAM and J.A. HARRELL ................................................................................................................................................................................. 243-256 New evidence of small-scale Roman basalt quarrying in Egypt: Widan el Faras in the northern Faiyum desert and Tilal Sawda by El-Minya P. STOREMYR and T. HELDAL .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 257-271 Ancient stone quarries: Vulnerable archaeological sites threatened by modern development P. HADJIDAKIS, D. MATARANGAS and M. VARTI-MATARANGAS .............................................................................................................................................................. 273-288 Ancient quarries in Delos, Greece M. WURCH-KOZELJ et T. KOZELJ ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 289-307 Quelques sarcophages rectangulaires dpoque impriale, des carrires thasiennes aux ncropoles de Thasos K. LASKARIDIS and V. PERDIKATSIS ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 309-317 Characterisation of the timeless white marble and quarrying activity in Thassos

PART III: PROVENANCE IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERISATION (MARBLE)F. GABELLONE, M.T. GIANNOTTA and A. ALESSIO ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 319-331 The Torre Sgarrata wreck (South Italy): Marble artefacts in the cargo

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A. CALIA, M.T. GIANNOTTA, L. LAZZARINI and G. QUARTA ...................................................................................................................................................................... 333-342 The Torre Sgarrata wreck: Characterization and provenance of white marble artefacts in the cargo D. ATTANASIO, S. KANE and N. HERZ ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 343-356 New isotopic and EPR data for 22 sculptures from the extramural sanctuary of Demeter and Persephone at Cyrene D. ATTANASIO, G. MESOLELLA, P. PENSABENE, R. PLATANIA and P. ROCCHI .................................................................................................................. 357-369 EPR and Petrographic provenance of the architectural white marbles of three buildings at Villa Adriana T. CRAMER, K. GERMANN and W.D. HEILMEYER ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 371-383 Marble objects from Asia Minor in the Berlin collection of classical antiquities: stone characteristics and provenance M. BRUNO, C. GORGONI and P. PALLANTE ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 385-398 On the provenance of white marbles used in the baths of Caracalla in Rome M. FISCHER ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 399-412 Marble from Pentelicon, Paros, Thasos and Proconnesus in ancient Israel: an attempt at a chronological distinction Y. MANIATIS, P. SOTIRAKOPOULOU, K. POLIKRETI, E. DOTSIKA and E. TZAVIDOPOULOS ........................................................................ 413-437 The Keros Hoard: Provenance of the figurines and possible sources of marble in the Cyclades Y. MANIATIS, S. PAPADOPOULOS, E. DOTSIKA, D. KAVOUSSANAKI and E. TZAVIDOPOULOS .............................................................. 439-449 Provenance investigation of Neolithic marble vases from Limeraria, Thassos: Imported marble to Thassos? M. UNTERWURZACHER, H. STADLER and P. MIRWALD ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 451-458 Provenance study of Roman marble artefacts of an excavation near Oberdrauburg (Carinthia, Austria) L. LAZZARINI ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 459-484 The distribution and re-use of the most important coloured marbles in the provinces of the Roman Empire M. MARIOTTINI, E. CURTI and E. MOSCETTI ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 485-493 The taste of the marbles in Roman villae (Tiburtina-Nomentana) L. LAZZARINI and S. CANCELLIERE .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 495-508 Marmor Thessalicum (verde antico): Source, distribution and characterization P. LAPUENTE, B. TURI and Ph. BLANC ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 509-522 Marbles and coloured stones from the theatre of Caesaraugusta (Hispania): Preliminary study R.H. TYKOT, G.E. BORROMEO, C. CORRADO-GOULET and K. SEVERSON ....................................................................................................................... 523-532 Marble sculptures from the Rhode Island School of Design: Provenance studies using stable isotope and other analysis

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J. J. HERRMANN, Jr., R. NEWMAN and A. VAN DEN HOEK ............................................................................................................................................................................... 533-545 Identifying Dolomitic Marble 2000-2003: The Capitoline Museums, New York, and SomnusHypnos in Urbisaglia

PART IV: PROVENANCE IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERISATION (OTHER STONES)R. BUGINI and L. FOLLI ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 547-557 On tesserae of Roman mosaics in Lombardy (Italy) E. Roffia, R. Bugini and L. Folli .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 559-570 Stone materials of the Roman villas around lake Garda (Italy) P. DEGRYSE, P. MUCHEZ, E. TROGH and M. WAELKENS ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 571-580 The natural building stones of Helenistic to Byzantine Sagalassos: Provenance determination through stable isotope geochemistry .J. JANSEN, T. HELDAL, R.B. PEDERSEN, Y. RONEN and S.H.H. KALAND ...................................................................................................................... 581-595 Provenance of soapstone used in medieval buildings in the Bergen region, Western Norway B. MORONI, I. BORGIA, M. PETRELLI and P. LAPUENTE ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 597-613 Archaeometry of chert tools: For a non-destructive geochemical approach J. CASSAR .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 615-626 Classifying Maltese prehistoric limestone megaliths by means of geochemical data F. ANTONELLI, L. LAZZARINI, S. CANCELLIERE and A. SOLANO .............................................................................................................................................................. 627-643 Granito del Foro and Granito di Nicotera: Archaeometric problems O. ZBEK ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 645-656 The prehistoric ground stone implements from Yartarla: The preliminary results of a geoarchaeological study in Tekirdag region (Eastern Thrace) S. CHLOUVERAKI and S. LUGLI ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 657-668 Gypsum: A jewel in Minoan palatial architecture; Identification and characterization of its varieties L. LAZZARINI and F. ATHANASIOU ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 669-676 The discovery of the Greek origin of the Breccia policroma della Vittoria

PART V: TECHNIQUES AND DEVELOPMENTSJ. ZLDFLDI and Zs. KASZTOVSZKY .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 677-691 Provenance study of Lapis Lazuli by non-destructive prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) F. BIRICOTTI and M. SEVERI ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 693-698 A new non-destructive methodology for studying the internal structure of white marble of artistic and archaeological interest

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PART VI: DATABASESS. PIKE ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 699-708 A stable isotope database for the ancient white marble quarries of Mount Pentelikon, Greece G. KOKKOROU-ALEVRAS, E. POUPAKI, A. CHATZICONSTANTINOU and A. EFSTATHOPOULOS ......................................................... 709-718 Corpus of ancient Greek quarries B. SZKELY and J. ZLDFLDI ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 719-734 Fractal analysis and quantitative fabric analysis database of West Anatolian white marbles

PART VII: STONE PROPERTIES WEATHERING RESTORATION A. TSIKOURAS, K. MIHOPOULOS, K. HATZIPANAGIOTOU and N. NINIS .................................................................................................................................. 735-743 Correlations of mineralogy and physical properties for stones used in the building and the restoration of the Asklepieion at Epidauros I. PAPAYIANNI and M. STEFANIDOU ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 745-752 Study of the behaviour of Serpentinite stones used for the construction of ancient Dioklitianoupoli in Northern Greece M. GREENHALGH .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 753-764 Where have all the columns gone? The loss and reuse of antiquities in the Eastern Mediterranean K. KOUZELI, and E. ZGOULETA ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 765-776 Gypsum at the Minoan site of Knossos: Types and deterioration L. GIORDANI, M. ODDONE, and S. MELONI .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 777-786 Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis of the marble faade of the Certosa di Pavia: Materials provenancing and problematics related to decay K. POLIKRETI, and Y. MANIATIS .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 787-798 Ionic and charge mobility on weathered marble surfaces, studied by EPR spectroscopy

PART VIII: PIGMENTS AND PAINTINGS ON MARBLEB. BOURGEOIS and Ph. JOCKEY ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 799-809 Polychrome Hellenistic sculpture in Delos: Research on surface treatments of ancient marble sculpture - Part II A. G. KARYDAS, H. BRECOULAKI, B. BOURGEOIS and Ph. JOCKEY .................................................................................................................................................... 811-829 In-situ X-Ray Fluorescence analysis of raw pigments and traces of polychromy on Hellenistic sculpture at the archaeological museum of Delos

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PRFACELacronyme ASMOSIA dsigne lAssociation pour ltude du marbre et autres pierres dans lAntiquit (Association for the Study of Marble and Other Stones in Antiquity), fonde lors dun atelier de recherche avance de lOTAN qui sest tenu lhtel Il Ciocco, Lucca, en Italie, du 9 au 13 mai 1988. Latelier tait intitul : Le marbre en Grce ancienne et Rome : Gologie, carrires, commerce et artefacts. Il fut suivi par une cinquantaine de participants qui reprsentaient de nombreuses professions : des physiciens, travaillant dans le domaine de larchomtrie, des archologues, des historiens de lart et des conservateurs. Il fut organis par Marc Waelkens et Norman Herz avec le but affich dencourager les projets associant scientifiques, historiens de lart et autres pour une meilleure comprhension des questions relevant de lusage de la pierre par les Anciens. la suite de cet atelier, une srie de rencontres fut programme tous les deux ans et demi environ : la seconde rencontre eut lieu du 16 au 20 octobre 1990 Louvain, en Belgique ; la troisime du 17 au 19 mai 1993 Athnes, en Grce ; la quatrime du 9 au 13 octobre 1995 Bordeaux, en France ; la cinquime du 11 au 15 juin 1998 Boston, aux tats-Unis ; la sixime du 15 au 18 juin 2000 Venise, en Italie ; la septime du 15 au 20 septembre 2003 Limnas, sur lle de Thasos, en Grce. Cette srie de colloques fait partie intgrante de lassociation ASMOSIA : ils ont pour objectif de promouvoir la collaboration entre les sciences, larchologie et lhistoire de lart pour une meilleure comprhension de lexploitation, du transport, du traitement et de lemploi de la pierre brute dans lAntiquit. La publication des actes a t bien accueillie la fois par les historiens de lart, les archologues et la communaut scientifique, comme par les corps de conservateurs; elle a contribu susciter une coopration interdisciplinaire sans cesse largie. Dans la mesure o, avant la cration de lassociation, cette coopration tait minimale, ce fut l, en fait, un progrs dcisif. Pour la bonne organisation et la publication de ces rencontres, on a galement eu la chance de bnficier du soutien financier dagences nationales et internationales, comme la fondation Samuel H. Kress Foundation, lOTAN, etc. Le nombre de membres de lassociation a plus que quadrupl, passant de 50 en 1988 environ 250 aujourdhui, reprsentant 25 pays. En dehors des actes de colloques, ASMOSIA publie galement raison de deux fois par an lASMOSIA Newsletter. ce jour, ce domaine de la recherche a fait preuve dimportantes avances dans la mesure o les sources matrielles dont on dispose pour lusage du marbre et des autres pierres dans lAntiquit ont t largement tudies et o les matriaux eux-mmes ont fait lobjet de caractrisations gologiques et physico-chimiques. Les bases de donnes avec leurs paramtres analytiques se sont dveloppes et les

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caractristiques de diffrents types de pierres brutes se sont accumules. Bien des problmes archologiques ou relevant de lhistoire de lart trouvent dsormais une meilleure rponse et une meilleure explication par le recours aux analyses scientifiques et aux bases de donnes, quil sagisse de la provenance, de lidentification, de la diffusion, du traitement, des assemblages et de la prservation dimportants artefacts. Le 7e colloque international de lassociation ASMOSIA sest tenu Limnas, la ville principale et le port de lle de Thasos, en Grce. Il a t organis par le laboratoire darchomtrie-NCSR Demokritos , lcole franaise dAthnes, la 18e phorie des antiquits prhistoriques et classiques, lIGME (Institute of Geology and Mineral Exploration). Le comit dorganisation, compos de Y. Maniatis, K. Polikreti, Z. Bonias, S. Papadopoulos, T. Kozelj, M. Wurch-Kozelj et M. Varti-Mataranga, tient adresser ses remerciements la Municipalit de Thasos qui a mis disposition la salle de confrences du Kalogeriko et a tout mis en uvre pour faciliter le bon droulement du colloque, le ministre grec de la culture et le ministre grec de lge ainsi que lAssociation des entreprises du marbre de Thrace et de Macdoine pour leur soutien financier. Ce volume runit les contributions prsentes au 7e colloque international de lassociation ASMOSIA. Les thmes abords dans ces communications sont la pointe du domaine interdisciplinaire o se rejoignent les sciences, larchologie et lhistoire de lart ; ils refltent un large spectre de la recherche poursuivie sur les pierres grce la coopration des sciences et des humanits. En particulier, les thmes abords recouvrent presque tous les aspects qui concernent la pierre depuis la carrire jusquau produit dcor dans son tat final, sans exclure les questions du vieillissement et de la restauration. Tous les textes soumis pour publication dans ces actes ont fait lobjet dune rvision attentive par un ou plusieurs rviseurs, ce qui en garantit le haut niveau, le caractre innovant et la porte scientifique. En la matire, nous exprimons nos sincres remerciements aux membres du comit excutif de lassociation ASMOSIA, N. Herz, L. Lazzarini, P. Storemyr, J.J. Herrmann Jr., Ph. Jockey, S. Kane, J. Harrell, ainsi quaux members du comit scientifique du colloque qui ont apport leur concours la difficile rvision des textes prsents dans ce volume. En outre, nous voulons remercier V. Zatta, secrtaire de lInstitute of Materials Science-NCSR Demokritos pour son aide dans le traitement des actes et les tudiants-chercheurs du laboratoire darchomtrie-NCSR Demokritos D. Tambakopoulos et M. Maniati pour leur aide dans lorganisation et la relecture des preuves. Nous tenons aussi exprimer notre plus profonde gratitude lcole franaise dAthnes et, en particulier, son directeur, le professeur D. Mulliez : lcole franaise dAthnes, en effet, a support la totalit du cot de fabrication et du travail de publication des actes dans le Supplment 51 du Bulletin de Correspondance Hellnique. Nos remerciements vont galement Sandrine Huber, ancienne adjointe aux publications de lcole franaise dAthnes, et Catherine Aubert, qui lui a succd ce poste, pour la part quelles ont prise dans llaboration de la publication. Yannis Maniatis Prsident de lassociation ASMOSIABCH Suppl. 51

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PREFACEASMOSIA stands for the Association for the Study of Marble and Other Stones in Antiquity and was founded at a NATO sponsored Advanced Research Workshop held at Il Ciocco, Lucca, Italy, 9-13 May, 1988. The Workshop was entitled, Marble in Ancient Greece and Rome: Geology, Quarries, Commerce, Artifacts and was attended by fifty persons representing many varied professions: physical scientists working in Archaeometry, archaeologists, art historians, and conservators. It was organized by Marc Waelkens and Norman Herz with the avowed goal of encouraging collaborative projects among scientists, art historians and others in order to better understand the problems associated with ancient mans use of stone. Following that a series of meetings were held scheduled approximately every two and a half year: the second meeting was held October 16-20, 1990 in Leuven, Belgium; the third May 17-19, 1993, in Athens, Greece; the fourth October 9-13, 1995 in Bordeaux, France; the fifth June 11-15, 1998, in Boston, USA; the sixth June 15-18, 2000 in Venice, Italy; and the seventh in September 15-20, 2003 at Limenas on the Island of Thassos, Greece. These series of conferences form an integral part of the Association for the Study of Marble and Other Stones Used in Antiquity (ASMOSIA) and their aim is to promote the combined scientific, archaeological and art-historical research for a better understanding of the exploration, transportation, treatment and use of stone raw materials in Antiquity. The publications of the proceedings have been well received by both the art historical, archaeological, and scientific, as well as museum communities and have helped to inspire an ever increasing interdisciplinary cooperation. Since previous to ASMOSIA, such cooperation was minimal, this has indeed been a great accomplishment. We have also been fortunate in receiving financial support for our meetings and publications from national and international agencies, such as the Samuel H. Kress Foundation, NATO etc. Membership in ASMOSIA has grown over four-fold, from under 50 in 1988 to about 250 now and representing 25 countries. Publications apart from the conference proceedings include the currently twice-yearly ASMOSIA Newsletter. Today, the field has witnessed important advances as the raw material sources for marble and other stones used in Antiquity have been studied to a great extend and the materials have been characterised geologically and physicochemically. The databases with analytical parameters have been expanding and experience with the characteristics of different types of raw stone materials has been accumulating. Many archaeological and art-historical problems can now be better resolved and explained using the advanced scientific methods and databases. Such problems may be related to provenance, identification, movement, treatment, assemblages and preservation of important artifacts.

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The 7th International ASMOSIA Conference was held at Limenas, the main town and harbour of the island of Thassos, Greece. It was organized by the Laboratory of Archaeometry-NCSR Demokritos, the French School at Athens, the 18th Ephoreia of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities and the Institute of Geology and Mineral Exploration. The Organizing Committee, Y. Maniatis, K. Polikreti, Z. Bonias, S. Papadopoulos, T. Kozelj, M. Wurch-Kozelj and M. Varti-Mataranga would like to thank and acknowledge the Municipal Authorities of Thassos for providing the Conference building Kalogeriko and all the necessary facilities in order to make this Conference possible, the financial support of the Greek Ministry of Culture, the financial support of the Greek Ministry of the Aegean and the financial support of the Association of Marble Enterprises of Macedonia and Thrace. This book contains the papers submitted to the 7th International ASMOSIA Conference. The subjects of the papers represent the state-of-the art in the field and reflect a very broad range of research and applications carried out in cooperation between the sciences and the humanities. In particular, the subjects cover almost everything on stone from the quarry to the final decorated object, including even aspects of weathering and restoration. All the papers submitted for publication in these proceedings went under a peer reviewing process by one or more reviewers. This guarantees that the papers published in this volume are of high standards, innovative and scientifically sound. For this, we expresses his sincere thanks to the Executive Committee of ASMOSIA, N. Herz, L. Lazzarini, P. Storemyr, J.J. Herrmann Jr., Ph. Jockey, S. Kane, J. Harrell, and the Scientific Committee of the Conference and also to other professional colleagues who helped with the difficult task of reviewing the papers presented in this volume. In addition, we want to thank Mrs V. Zatta, the Secretary of the Institute of Materials Science of NCSR Demokritos for her help in processing the proceedings and the research students of the Laboratory of Archaeometry-NCSR Demokritos Mr. D. Tambakopoulos and Mrs. M. Maniati for their help in organising and proof readings of the papers. We also expresses his deepest gratitude to the French School at Athens and particularly to its Director prof. D. Mulliez for undertaking the full cost and effort of publication of the proceedings as Supplement 51 of the Bulletin de Correspondance Hellnique. Thanks are also due to Mrs. S. Huber, former publication officer of the French School, and Mrs. C. Aubert, present publication officer, for organizing the publication. Yannis Maniatis Current President of ASMOSIABCH Suppl. 51

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THE ISLAND OF THASSOS AND THE AEGEAN IN THE PREHISTORYCh. KOUKOULI-CHRYSANTHAKI and S. PAPADOPOULOS18 th Ephoreia of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities, Ministry of Culture

ABSTRACTIn this paper a synopsis of the archaeological research in Thassos connected with the one in the Aegean is attempted. Indications for the earliest human activity in the island come from the ochre mines at Tzines. The research at Limenaria and Kastri have brought into light Neolithic strata, dated from 6th to 4th mill. Excavation of FN/EBA deposits at Ayios Ioannis and Limenaria contributed in the study of this transitional period in the North Aegean. Excavation at Skala Sotiros revealed the Aegean characteristics of an advanced phase of EBA in Thassos. Surveys confirmed a movement towards the interior of the island since the LBA. New archaeological data allowed discussions on the island settlement patterns and cultural process, revealing contacts between Thassos and the Aegean as well.KEYWORDS: THASSOS, AEGEAN, PREHISTORY, PALAEOLITHIC, NEOLITHIC, BRONZE AGE, IRON AGE, ARCHAEOLOGY, SETTLEMENT, EXCAVATION

INTRODUCTION The Aegean World is characterized by geophysical diversity and segmentation. The communication between the islands and the mainland coasts followed initially the ways determined by the sea currents and the possibilities of the coastal navigation. A number of factors have influenced the formation of the economic and cultural exchange networks during the prehistory. These factors sometimes defined the common characteristics of a unified cultural region but, in other cases, they created autonomous unities like Crete, or complexes like the Cyclades, or even unities of island and nearby mainland areas connected with bidirectional links. Thassos could be placed in this last case (fig. 1).

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2 Palaeolithic Ochre Mines 20000 .X./BC N Neolithic Period 6000-3500 .X./BC E X Early Bronze Age 3500-1500 .X./BC E X Late Bronze Age 1500-1100 .X./BC E Iron Age 1100-800 .X./BC Flint Quarry

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X Quartz Quarry

Fig. 1. Prehistoric sites on the Thassos island.

The geographical location of Thassos at the northern edge of the Aegean and at a small distance from the shores of Macedonia and Thrace (PERISSORATIS et al. 1987; KRAFT et al. 1982) played a definitive role in its cultural development. The neighboring with the Balkans and Asia Minor facilitated the communication of the island with the mainland areas of Europe and Asia. On the other hand, Thassos, based on its self-sufficiency provided by its fertile and rich in raw materials soil (LESPEZ and PAPADOPOULOS 2002; LESPEZ et al. 2004; Anschnitt 1988), was detached from the exclusive dependence on a sea commerce economy. According to the existent archaeological evidence, the earliest human activity in the Aegean is the mining, dated already in the Palaeolithic period in two islands: Thassos and Melos. In Thassos, at the site Tzines (fig. 2), ochre mines dated in the Late Palaeolithic have come into light (KOUKOULI-CHRYSANTHAKI et al. 1988; KOUKOULI-CHRYSANTHAKI and WEISGERBER 1999). Ocher was being collected by digging out the hematite deposits through underground tunnels, using pebbles as hammering tools and animal horns as wedges. A similar case of systematic collection and quarrying of a stone material is represented in Melos, where the obsidian is quarried from Palaeolithic to the Bronze Age period (TORRENCE 1986; KARIMALI 1994 and 2001). Sites of the Mesolithic, the Early Neolithic but also the first phases of Middle Neolithic are known up to now only in the periphery of the Aegean basin; specifically theBCH Suppl. 51

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Fig. 2. Tzines: Ochre mine.

Sporades, Euboea, Chios and Crete. Only towards the end of the Middle Neolithic and in the beginning of the Late Neolithic, sites in more distant, smaller and less fertile islands, namely in the Cyclades, but also in the North Aegean, as Samothrace and Thassos, are settled (PAPATHANASSOPOULOS 1996; DEMOULE and PERLES 1993).

THE NEOLITHIC PERIOD During the Neolithic Period, the extended settlements are absent in the Aegean with the exception of the site at Knossos. We have to do mostly with small occupations in the Cyclades, such as Saliangos, Ftelia, Strofilas and Kephala, with an architecture based on stone buildings and constructions of small dimensions and of a compact arrangement, occasionally protected by stone built enclosures (EVANS and REFREW 1968; COLEMAN 1977; PAPATHANASSOPOULOS 1996). In Thassos, most Neolithic settlements are located in the south part of the island. A settlement with well-defined Aegean features is the one at Kastri, where the excavations brought to light stone buildings and a fortification wall, also built in stone (KOUKOULICHRYSANTHAKI 1972-1980). On the other hand, the coastal settlement at Limenaria, datedBCH Suppl. 51

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with calibrated C-14 in the middle of the 6th millennium B.C. (MANIATIS and FAKORELLIS 2003) is characterized by a mixed architectural tradition, with the combined presence of characteristics of Northern Greek but also of Central Aegean architecture: the post-holed houses coexist with stone-built constructions, such as retaining walls, banks and benches (fig. 3) (MALAMIDOU 1996 and 2003; PAPADOPOULOS and MALAMIDOU 2001; PAPADOPOULOS and MALAMIDOU 2008). The study of the Neolithic artifacts, mostly of the pottery, reveals also multiple connections. One can easily trace similarities with Eastern Macedonia in the decorated pottery of the Late Neolithic (fig. 4), but also with the Aegean Thrace and Western Turkey in the shapes of the vases and in the types of figurines. On the other hand, some of the earliest pottery wares like those decorated with white on black, and the abundant appearance of the eight-shaped stone weights, probably related to fishery, have obviously more references to the Central and Eastern Aegean or even to the Thessaly coasts, already in the middle of the 6th millennium (PAPADOPOULOS and MALAMIDOU 2003; PAPADOPOULOS 2003a). Obsidian blades from Limenaria show the incorporation of the island in the trading network of the Melos obsidian, better operating in the Aegean from the earliest phases of the Late Neolithic. Obsidian was going around in a widespread zone that included Cyclades, Dodekannese, Crete, Peloponesse, Central Greece, Thessaly, and to a lesser extent Macedonia and Thrace. The Neolithic obsidian samples from Thassos, analyzed in Demokritos, indicated that the raw material source was Adamas mine in Melos, supplier of about 80% of Neolithic sites of the Greek and Aegean regions. It means that Thassos as well, follows the familiar Neolithic trading pattern, in agreement with a model of terrestrial distribution, according to which smaller numbers are anticipated the more the distance from Melos (KARIMALI 2001). Recently we acquired information for the origin of a number of marble vases from the Neolithic settlement at Limenaria. Their analysis determined as the place of origin of the raw material the region of Cyclades, possibly Naxos (MANIATIS et al. 2009). This recent discovery puzzles us, since marble is a material abundant in Thassos. This questioning is amplified by, the so far, lack of settlements in these early phases in Cyclades. Nevertheless, the frequent appearance of marble vases, figurines, and jewelry in the Neolithic settlements in Peloponnese, Thessaly and Macedonia necessitates the broadening of the research, to include marble objects of these settlements too (PAPATHANASSOPOULOS 1996). Sites of the Final Neolithic in the islands of the Central Aegean have offered invaluable evidence for the local metalworking. Copper, gold and silver artifacts, mostly jewelry and weapons, become more and more common after the middle of the 5th millennium all over the Aegean area (PAPATHANASSOPOULOS 1996). The most characteristic artifact of the Final Neolithic is a circular pendant, which is produced in gold, silver, and also stone (DEMAKOPOULOU 1999). Gold artifacts like those of Aravissos show that we are ignorant of the real extent of metallurgy in areas like Macedonia, perhaps because such objects are related with cemeteries, which have not been located yet (GRAMMENOS 1997; VOKOTOPOULOU 1996). In Thassos, scientific analyses of lead isotopes in copper objects from Kastri speculate the presence of local

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Fig. 3. Limenaria: Late Neolithic clay structure.

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Thassian copper, as well as copper from Laurion already from the Final Neolithic Period (GALE 1992; KOUKOULI-CHRYSANTHAKI 1992). The end of the Neolithic Period and the transition to the Bronze Age remains unreadable for the island of Thassos. In the settlement of Limenaria, the layers of the Bronze Age belong to later phases of the Early Bronze Age (MALAMIDOU and PAPADOPOULOS 1997, 1999; PAPADOPOULOS and MALAMIDOU 2008), whereas in the Kastri settlement the whole period seems to be absent (KOUKOULI-CHRYSANTHAKI 1972-1980). This gap will hopefully be covered by the recent excavation project in a coastal settlement, the site of Ayios Ioannis in South-Eastern Thassos, which radiocarbon dating places in the middle of the 4th millennium B.C. (MANIATIS and PAPADOPOULOS 2004; PAPADOPOULOS et al. 2002). We do not have yet important building remains in this site, but some pottery wares resemble those of the earliest phases of the Bronze Age in the Southern Aegean and the Eastern Macedonia. We have not located Neolithic cemeteries in Thassos, unless we are right in considering two trapezoid cists from Ayios Ioannis as burials, looking very similar to these found at the cemeteries at Cyclades and Euboia (SAMPSON 1993; COLEMAN 1977). On the other hand, the burial of an infant in a storage pit at Limenaria is most probably consistent with the familiar Northern Greece tradition (TRIANDAPHYLLOU 2003; AGELARAKIS and EFSTRATIOU 1996).

THE BRONZE AGE In the Early Bronze Age, period of flourishing in the Aegean, a variety of settlement patterns appear in its islands, and stone structures are dominant all over (BARBER 1987; DOUMAS and LA ROSA 1997; HGG and KONSOLA 1986; KOUKA 1996). In Southern Greece early urban settlements are being constructed, fortified with walls and bastions, with a dense urban planning and with central buildings of large dimensions, for example the two-storey houses with corridors (COSMOPOULOS 1995). At Aegina, Argolide, the Cyclades, Sporades, and at coastal sites of Asia Minor, we can also encounter fortified occupations that resemble castles, like the one of Troy, which was not unique, as recent excavations at Liman Tepe near Smyrna has shown. At the North East Aegean, big islands like Lemnos, Chios, and Lesbos constitute suitable territory for the development of real cities with an impressive expanse and town-planning organization, like that one at Poliochni in Lemnos and Thermi in Lesbos. Finally, in Crete, agricultural villages like Myrtos co-exist next to well-organized luxurious settlements like the one of Vassiliki, which declares the spatial organization of the first palaces (PREZIOSI 1983; BRANIGAN 1995). At Thassos, the analogies with the Aegean islands are now dominating and this is perhaps the reason for the appearance of coastal sites. The settlements at Skala Sotiros and Limenaria give witness to a high dependence on the settlement pattern of the smaller Aegean islands, where the fortified, small-sized castles prevail. The settlement at Skala Sotiros (KOUKOULI-CHRYSANTHAKI 1988-1993; PAPADOPOULOS et al. 2002) with the stone buildings, enclosed by an alsoBCH Suppl. 51

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Fig. 5. Skala Sotiros: Early Bronze Age castle.

stone-built fortification wall (fig. 5) resembles similar acropoles in the sites of the western coast of Asia Minor like Liman Tepe and Troy or some fortified settlements in the Cyclades islands (ERKANAL 1997; KORFMANN et al. 1997; BARBER 1987). The pottery of the site has analogies with northern Aegean shapes like , but also with vases of the settlements of Central and Eastern Macedonia (BERNABO BREA 1964; BLEGEN et al. 1950; ASLANIS 1985). The character of this small settlement at Thassos, dated in the 3rd millennium, has not been defined yet. However its small area and the type of the buildings that have been fragmentally revealed at its interior, indicate an occupation with a special role. The dynamics of the social hierarchy at Thassos before the 3rd millennium B.C. are represented by human-shaped stelae sculptured on marble or on gneiss, representing the figure of a warrior as a symbolic exemplary of the patriarchic society (fig. 6). A great number of such stelae have been used as construction material at the settlement of Skala Sotiros, but surface findings from other parts of the island give witness that the anthropomorphous stelae were common to the whole of the island (PAPADOPOULOS 2002, 2005), possibly surviving to the later stages of the Bronze Age and the Early Iron Age (KOUKOULI-CHRYSANTHAKI 1992).BCH Suppl. 51

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Fig. 6. Skala Sotiros: statue of gneiss. Fig. 7. Limenaria: offering table.

We know very little of the occupation at Limenaria for the same period, but the strong stonewalls that are being traced also resemble the Aegean tradition (PAPADOPOULOS and MALAMIDOU 1998; PAPADOPOULOS and BECHTSI 2003). A stone-paved area that was excavated at this site containing a large number of standing-up stones does not have, for the time being, neither Aegean nor Balkanic resemblances unless we associate it with the earlier stelae of Skala Sotiros, ignoring either way its purpose. In both settlements stones with cavities have come into light, that are most commonly known in Southern Aegean as or offering tables (fig. 7) (PELON 1988; VAN EFFENTERRE 1955). On the other hand, stone axes with a hole for a shaft must also represent, prestigious objects possibly of a sympolic issue. One of them, found at Skala Sotiros, has elaborate decoration equivalent of the alleged scepter of Malia (PAPADOPOULOS et al. 2002).BCH Suppl. 51

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At the 3rd millennium metals either as raw materials or as objects constitute one of the most important basis for the development of a more intensive marine commerce in the whole of the Aegean. The metal deposits of Siphnos and of Laurion towards the end of the Neolithic and at the beginning of the Bronze Age period supply systematically the settlements of the Cyclades and Attica, that due to the neighboring to those two sources play the leading part, to lead treatment for the production of silver (DOUNI and KAKAVOYIANNI 2002; BASSIAKOS and WAGNER 2002). The ability to control those metal sources perhaps constitutes one of the most important reasons of the development of important early urban city centers like Troy and Poliochni, where treasures of gold and copper jewelry have come into light (DOUMAS and LA ROSA 1997; KORFMANN 1995). At Thassos, archaeological finds in combination with physicochemical analyses tend to confirm the early appearance of the Thassian gold in jewelry of the Early Bronze Age, like the button-shaped clothe-ornament from Skala Sotiros, identical with those of Troy (KOUKOULICHYSANTHAKI 1988-1993). Also the layers of the Final (Neolithic/Early Bronze Age) at Limenaria have offered a great number of slag, proof of a local treatment of copper, as well as parts of litharge, witness of a local production of silver (PAPADOPOULOS 2008). Technologically, the treatment of copper and silver at Thassos is not far from what we know in metallurgy centers of the Aegean, like Kythnos, Serifos, and Chryssokamino of Crete (PAPADOPOULOS 2008). Nevertheless, the trade of other raw material, namely obsidian and flint, still continues to take place. Thassos continues to obtain obsidian from Adamas, following the older tradition, in contrast to the new fashion that sets raw material from Demenegaki as much more popular. The transition from the Early to the Middle Bronze Age takes place in different ways in the different areas of the Aegean World. In Crete, it is characterized by deep social and economic changes that lead to the appearance of the palatial system. The Central, Southern, and Northern Greece, Eastern Aegean and the Cyclades, appear as unities that tend to be differentiated from each other more and more. Northern Greece receives during the 2nd millennium stronger influences from the Balkan region, and continues conservatively the tradition of the Early Bronze Age. Exceptions are only some settlements at Chalkidiki, where influences are noticed from the southern Helladic region like the introduction of wheeled, so-called minyan pottery, of which however local hand-made imitations appear in Central Macedonia as well (HEURTLEY 1939). The Middle Bronze Age is characterized by the dynamic presence of Minoan traders in the whole of the Aegean and possible in the Black Sea as well, witnessed by the discovery of clay stamps with symbols of Linear A at Samothrace and the Eastern Bulgaria (MATSAS 1995). The Middle Bronze Age is still completely unknown in Thassos. The latest phases at Skala Sotiros and Limenaria touche the beginning of the Middle Bronze Age. The transition from the Middle to the Late Bronze Age takes place at the whole of the Aegean region with essential cultural changes, and is characterized as a period of renovation. The palatial civilization of Crete with its monumental architecture meets the highest of its peak and of its influence to the Aegean. The mainland Greece innovations are noticed in architecture, in industrial production, and in social organisation. In Peloponnese, proof of the accumulation of wealth and power is the emergence of the Mycenaean citadels with palaces and graves rich

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Fig. 8. Ai-Lias: Late Bronze Age tower.

in funeral offerings. At Cyclades we notice the appearance of big buildings in the centre of fortified settlements like Fylakopi, Agia Irini of Kea, and especially Akrotiri at Thera. The explosion of the Thera volcano at about the middle of the 2nd millennium signifies the end of the peak of the island and the beginning of the end for Minoan Crete. After the middle of the 15th century B.C. the flourishing of the Mycenaean civilization dominates the Aegean World. Up to the middle of the 13th century B.C. all of its characteristics take shape and spread from Peloponnese to Thessaly: economic and political centralized organization in citadels with palaces, sanctuaries and dependent settlements with a farming and small case industrial character, specialization of activities and standardization of production. The Mycenaean commerce, which expands after the LHIIIA, appears very dynamic in the whole of Southern and Central Aegean up to Chios, Asia Minor, and Cyprus. In the North, dynamic Mycenaean appearance is limited in Chalkidiki, and seems to be probably weak in places like Thassos and the coasts of Eastern Macedonia and Thrace (WARDLE 1993; WARDLE et al. 2003). The island of Thassos, distant from the seaways that lead to the straits of Propondis, at the end of the 2nd millennium stays out of the movement of sea transport and commerce, and it is defined by its static agricultural economy. Nevertheless, at Southern Thassos during the LateBCH Suppl. 51

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Bronze Age evidence is traced of a settlement pattern according to which Kastri is the central settlement with the existence of satellite occupations in its periphery (PAPADOPOULOS 2005). From those, some act as stock-farm stations, e.g. Ai-Lias and Koukoudia (fig. 8), whereas the coastal site of Ayios Antonios at Potos must have been filling the need for a connection between the central settlement and the sea. This model of settlement hierarchy makes us think of the possibility to have already a centre of political power, at the area of Theologos, analogous to those of the Mycenaean World, that is comprised of a central acropolis that controls and protects a number of small installations (KOUKOULI-CHRYSANTHAKI 1992; PAPADOPOULOS and BECHTSI 2003). In any case, centres of similar types have also been traced by archaeological investigations in Central Macedonia, where the excavations at the value of Axios (Kastanas), at the area of Langadas (Assiros), and in the city of Thessaloniki (Toumba) have revealed central fortified occupations with collective storage buildings, destined for the storage and re-distribution of the surplus of the agricultural production of a greater community (ANDREOU and KOTSAKIS 1987; ANDREOU and KOTSAKIS 1996; WARDLE 1988). From the study of the local hand-made pottery it also comes out that Thassos is incorporated into the cultural community that was formed at the East of Axios River in Macedonia and the Aegean Thrace. In these areas population groups move about and cultural currents with a bidirectional movement between the coastal areas and Central Balkans have been observed (KOUKOULI-CHRYSANTHAKI 1982a; KIRIATZI et al. 1997). The relations between Thassos and the Mycenaean World is certified by the presence of Mycenaean pottery imports and locally made or sometimes handmade imitations in local clay which are met not only at Thassos (PAPADOPOULOS 2003b), but also from the inland of the Pangaion mountain up to the current boarders with Bulgaria (KOUKOULI-CHRYSANTHAKI 1980; VALLA 2004). Connected with the Mycenaean commerce are even beads made of glass as well as bronze Mycenaean weapons, swords and lances, imported or locally imitated. The built graves in the cemeteries of the Late Bronze Age at Kastri also refer to the Aegean World (figs 9-10). Their circular plan, the primitive corbelled roof, as well as the multiple burials refer to similar types of graves and burial customs found in the remote mountain settlements in the Aegean, like the one of Karphi in Crete.

THE IRON AGE The end of the Mycenaean World in the beginning of the 11th century B.C. opens a new chapter in the history of the Aegean World. This period that is characterized as Dark Ages, must not have been very dark for the Aegean, since it contained all the forces that led to its explosive flourishing during the Archaic period. Iron metallurgy known already by the 12th century B.C. in the Aegean World, at the 11th century B.C. spreads progressively and replaces copper for weapons and tools not only in south Greece but in the North too. In Southern Greece, Protogeometric and Geometric period, as the period from the 11th up to the 8th century B.C. is named conventionally, rescue and transform the tradition of the MycenaeanBCH Suppl. 51

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World, and prepare the new chapter of the Greek Civilization, with starting point the first Greek colonization in the Aegean and in the Western coasts of Asia Minor. The changes that take place at Thassos at the same period are not clear since it seems that cultural continuity prevails. At the settlement of Kastri and its extended cemeteries around it, excavations document this lack of gap in the cultural continuity. During the Early Iron Age, the Kastri settlement appears to have gone through a great population flourishing, proved not only by the extended cemeteries, but also from the existence of small dependent settlements around the fortified citadel. On the top of the hill Kastri, a central part of the fortress is apparent with a continuous building complex and a fortified surrounding wall. Inside the fortress and on the slopes of the hill, stone built apsidal houses have been excavated (KOUKOULI-CHRYSANTHAKI 1982b). This type of the single room apsidal house is well known from the southern Greece during the Geometric and Archaic periods (MAZARAKIS AINIAN 2001). The stone-built graves also resemble Aegean examples scattered from upland Crete to the Aegean Thrace. The clusters of family graves with multiple burials in their interior and infant burials into pithoi reflect the existence of big families in a society of land and stock farmers, organized in tribal areas with fortified acropolis and isolated towers to provide security. Although Thassos is not mentioned by Homer, according to archaeological finds the island was not cut out from the rest of the Aegean World. During the Early Iron Age among the local hand-made vases, other hand-made vases also appear, copying the wheel-made vessels of prorogeometric style. At the same period, bronze fibulae of Aegean type co-exist with the local bronze jewelry. Physicochemical analyses of metal objects from Kastri prove the use of Thassian copper in tools, weapons and jewelry, while the analysis of a gold hair ring of the same site supports the suggestion for the presence of thassian gold in jewelry (VAVELIDIS 1992). On the other hand, the analysis of a lead talent and of smelting slag of copper and iron, confirm that at the Kastri settlement during the Late Bronze and the Early Iron Age (KOUKOULI-CHRYSANTHAKI 1992) there was practice of extractive metallurgy, from the local ores of copper (GALE 1992), lead (PERNICKA et al. 1992) and iron (PHOTOS 1992). Towards the end of the Early Iron Age begins a new period of economic trading and cultural contacts for Thassos. It is represented by the appearance of wheel made vases analogous to the ones going around at the coasts of Macedonia, at the islands of North East Aegean, and at the Northwestern coasts of Asia Minor. With the resumption of cultural links with the Aegean, which may also be related to the arrival of the Phoenicians to Thassos and the exploitation of the gold mines of the island, prehistoric Thassos is on the verge of the historical period. During this period the end of 8th B.C. century a new coastal settlement appeared at the northeastern edge of the island at the site of the Parian colony of Thassos. Building remains of this settlement have been located by P. Bernard in the ancient city of Thassos at a small distance from the sanctuary of Artemis, in a deep stratigraphical section, under the earliest habitation layers of the Parian colony (BERNARD 1964; KROLL et al. 2002).

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BIBLIOGRAPHY AGELARAKIS, A., and EFSTRATIOU, N., 1996, Skeletal remains from the Neolithic site of Makri-Thrace: A preliminary report, Proceedings of the Second Symposium of the Hellenic Archaeometrical Society: Archaeometrical and Archaeological Research in Macedonia and Thrace, March 1993, Thessaloniki, pp. 11-21 (in Greek). ANDREOU, S., and KOTSAKIS, K., 1987, , . . . , vol. I, I, , Thessaloniki, pp. 57-88. ANDREOU, S., and KOTSAKIS, K., 1996, H . , AEMTH 10A, , Thessaloniki, pp. 369-387. ASLANIS, I., 1985, Kastanas: Die Frhebronzezeitlichen Funde und Befunde, Prhistorische Archologie in Sdeuropa, 4, Verlag Volker Spiess, Berlin. BARBER, R.L.N., 1987, The Cyclades in the Bronze Age, Duckworth, London. BASSIAKOS, Y., and WAGNER, G.A., 2002, Prehistoric mining and metallurgical stone implement in the Aegean: the case of Siphnos, 8 th European Archaeology Association Annual Meeting, 24-29 September 2002, Thessaloniki (unpublished). BERNABO-BREA, L., 1964, Poliochni. Citta preistorica nell isola di Lemnos, Monografie della Scuola Archeologica di Atene e delle Missioni Italiane in Oriente, LErma di Bretschneider, Roma. BERNARD, P., 1964, Cramique de la premire moitie du VIIe s. Thasos , BCH, 88, pp. 77-146. BLEGEN, C.W., CASKEY, J.C., RAWSON, M., and SPERLING, J., 1950, Troy, General Introduction. The First and Second Settlements, Princeton University Press, Princeton. BRANIGAN, K., 1995, Social transformations and the rise of the state in Crete, in R. LAFFINEUR, and W-D. NEIMEIER (eds), Politeia. Society and State in the Aegean Bronze Age, 5 th Intern. Aegean Conference, 10-13 April 1994, Aegaeum 12: Annales darchologie genne de lUniversit de Lige et UT-PASP, KLIEMO SA, Eupen, pp. 33-40. COLEMAN, J.E., 1977, Keos I. Kephala. A Late Neolithic Settlement and Cemetery, American School of Classical Studies, Princeton, New Jersey. COSMOPOULOS, M.B., 1995, Social and political organization in the Early Bronze 2 Aegean, in R. LAFFINEUR and W-D. NEIMEIER (eds), Politeia. Society and State in the Aegean Bronze Age, 5th Intern. Aegean Conference, 10-13 April 1994, Aegaeum 12: Annales darchologie genne de lUniversit de Lige et UT-PASP, KLIEMO SA, Eupen, pp. 23-32. DEMAKOPOULOU, K., 1999, . , A A, Athens. DEMOULE, J.-P., and PERLES C., 1993, The Greek Neolithic: A new review, Journal of World Prehistory, 7, n. 4, pp. 355-416. DOUNI, K., and KAKAVOYIANNI, O., 2002, Litharge of FN/EHI date from Mesogeia, Attica, Greece, 8 th European Archaeology Association Annual Meeting, 24-29 September 2002, Thessaloniki, (unpublished). DOUMAS, C.G., and LA ROSA, V., 1997, Poliochni e l Antica Eta del Bronzo nell Egeo Settentrionale, Scuola Archaeologica Italiana di Atene & Athens University, Athens. ERKANAL, H., 1997, Archaeological Researches at Liman Tepe, Municipality of Urla, Urla. EVANS, J.D., and RENFREW, C., 1968, Excavations at Saliagos near Antiparos, B.S.A., Thames and Hudson, London.BCH Suppl. 51

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