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ASMOSIA VII

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É C O L E F R A N Ç A I S E D ’ A T H È N E S

Directeur des publications : Dominique MulliezAdjointe aux publications : Catherine Aubert

Révision et mise au point des textes : Y. Maniatis

L’École française d’Athènes, qui a contribué à l’organisation de la rencontre ASMOSIA VII à Thasos, avec le centre Dimokritos, la18e éphorie des antiquités préhistoriques et classiques de Kavala et l’IGME, a pris en charge la totalité du coût de fabrication desactes dans sa collection, mais a autorisé à titre exceptionnel Yannis Maniatis à recourir aux normes éditoriales anglo-saxonnes.

Pré-presse et photogravure : EFA Velissarios Anagnostopoulos, Thymeli s.n.c.Coordination de la fabrication : EFA, Velissarios AnagnostopoulosImpression, reliure : Break In s.a.Conception graphique de la couverture : EFA, Velissarios Anagnostopoulos

Dépositaire : De Boccard Édition-Diffusion – 11, rue de Médicis, F – 75006 Paris, www.deboccard.com

© École française d’Athènes, 2009 – 6, rue Didotou, GR – 10680 Athènes, www.efa.gr

ISBN 978-2-86958-207-1

Reproduction et traduction, même partielles, interdites sans l’autorisation de l’éditeur pour tous pays, y compris les États-Unis.

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BCHSupplément 51

B U L L E T I N D E C O R R E S P O N D A N C E H E L L É N I Q U E

ASMOSIA VIIActes du VIIe colloque international de l’ASMOSIA

Organisé par l'École française d'Athènes,

le National Center for Scientific Research “DIMOKRITOS”,

la 18e éphorie des antiquités préhistoriques et classiques (Kavala)

et l’Institute of Geology and Mineral Exploration

Thasos, 15-20 septembre 2003

Proceedings of the 7th International Conference of

Association for the Study of Marble and Other Stones in Antiquity

organized by the French School of Athens,

the National Center for Scientific Research “DIMOKRITOS”,

the 18th Ephoreia of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities (Kavala)

and the Institute of Geology and Mineral Exploration

Thassos, september 15-20, 2003

Études réunies par Yannis MANIATIS

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CONTENTS

Préface Yannis Maniatis .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. XIII-XVI

ABBREVIATIONS IN BIBLIOGRAPHY .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... XVII

SPECIAL INTRODUCTORY TALK

Ch. KOUKOULI-CHRYSANTHAKI and S. PAPADOPOULOS .................................................................................................................................................................................................1-18The island of Thassos and the Aegean in the Prehistory

PART I: ARCHAEOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS – USE OF MARBLE

Th. STEFANIDOU-TIVERIOU ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 19-29Thassian marble: A connection between Thassos and Thessaloniki

E.J. WALTERS .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 31-41Thassian Julius Caesar

G.E BORROMEO, J.J. HERRMANN, Jr. and N. HERZ ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 43-51Macedonian workmanship on a Thassian marble Hadrian in Providence?

J. C. FANT .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 53-57White marbles in the summer triclinium of the casa del Bracciale d’Oro, Pompeii

J.J. HERRMANN, Jr. and R.H. TYKOT ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 59-75Some products from the Dokimeion quarries: craters, tables, capitals and statues

P.A. BUTZ ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 77-87The Naxian Colossus at Delos: “Same Stone”

A. BETORI, M. GOMEZ SERITO and P. PENSABENE ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 89-102Investigation of marbles and stones used in Augustean monuments of western alpine provinces (Italy)

F. BIANCHI and M. BRUNO .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 103-111Flavian amphitheatre: The Cavea and the Portico; Comments about the quality, quantity and the

working of its marbles

O. PALAGIA, Y. MANIATIS, E. DOTSIKA and D. KAVOUSSANAKI ........................................................................................................................................................... 113-132New investigations on the pedimental sculptures of the “Hieron” of Samothrace: A preliminary report

V. GAGGADIS-ROBIN, Y. MANIATIS, C. SINTÈS, D. KAVOUSSANAKI and E. DOTSIKA ...................................................................................... 133-146Provenance investigation of some marble sarcophagi from Arles with stable isotope and maximum

grain sizes analysis

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L. COOK and I. THOMAS ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 147-157Faustino Corsi and the coloured marbles of Derbyshire

F. VAN KEUREN, L.P. GROMET and N. HERZ .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 159-174Three mythological sarcophagi at the RISD Museum: Marble provenances and iconography

PART II: QUARRIES, QUARRYING TECHNIQUES, GEOLOGY AND STONE PROPERTIES

J.A. HARRELL ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 175-186The Bokari granodiorite quarry in Egypt’s eastern desert

E. BLOXAM, P. STOREMYR and T. HELDAL .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 187-201Hard stone quarrying in the Egyptian old Kingdom (3rd Millennium BC): rethinking the social or-

ganization

T. ENDO and S. NISHIMOTO ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 203-210The ancient Egyptian quarry at Dibabiya

D. KLEMM and R. KLEMM ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 211-225Pharaonic limestone quarries in Wadi Nakhla and Deir Abu Hennis, Egypt

T. HELDAL, P. STOREMYR, E. BLOXAM, I. SHAW, R. LEE and A. SALEM ....................................................................................................................................... 227-241GPS and GIS methodology in the mapping of Chephren’s quarry, Upper Egypt: a significant tool for

documentation and interpretation of the site

P. STOREMYR, T. HELDAL, E. BLOXAM and J.A. HARRELL ................................................................................................................................................................................. 243-256New evidence of small-scale Roman basalt quarrying in Egypt: Widan el Faras in the northern Faiyum

desert and Tilal Sawda by El-Minya

P. STOREMYR and T. HELDAL .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 257-271Ancient stone quarries: Vulnerable archaeological sites threatened by modern development

P. HADJIDAKIS, D. MATARANGAS and M. VARTI-MATARANGAS .............................................................................................................................................................. 273-288Ancient quarries in Delos, Greece

M. WURCH-KOZELJ et T. KOZELJ ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 289-307Quelques sarcophages rectangulaires d’époque impériale, des carrières thasiennes aux nécropoles de

Thasos

K. LASKARIDIS and V. PERDIKATSIS ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 309-317Characterisation of the timeless white marble and quarrying activity in Thassos

PART III: PROVENANCE IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERISATION (MARBLE)

F. GABELLONE, M.T. GIANNOTTA and A. ALESSIO ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 319-331The Torre Sgarrata wreck (South Italy): Marble artefacts in the cargo

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A. CALIA, M.T. GIANNOTTA, L. LAZZARINI and G. QUARTA ...................................................................................................................................................................... 333-342The Torre Sgarrata wreck: Characterization and provenance of white marble artefacts in the cargo

D. ATTANASIO, S. KANE and N. HERZ ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 343-356New isotopic and EPR data for 22 sculptures from the extramural sanctuary of Demeter and

Persephone at Cyrene

D. ATTANASIO, G. MESOLELLA, P. PENSABENE, R. PLATANIA and P. ROCCHI .................................................................................................................. 357-369EPR and Petrographic provenance of the architectural white marbles of three buildings at Villa Adriana

T. CRAMER, K. GERMANN and W.–D. HEILMEYER ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 371-383Marble objects from Asia Minor in the Berlin collection of classical antiquities: stone characteristics

and provenance

M. BRUNO, C. GORGONI and P. PALLANTE ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 385-398On the provenance of white marbles used in the baths of Caracalla in Rome

M. FISCHER ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 399-412Marble from Pentelicon, Paros, Thasos and Proconnesus in ancient Israel: an attempt at a chronolog-

ical distinction

Y. MANIATIS, P. SOTIRAKOPOULOU, K. POLIKRETI, E. DOTSIKA and E. TZAVIDOPOULOS ........................................................................ 413-437The “Keros Hoard”: Provenance of the figurines and possible sources of marble in the Cyclades

Y. MANIATIS, S. PAPADOPOULOS, E. DOTSIKA, D. KAVOUSSANAKI and E. TZAVIDOPOULOS .............................................................. 439-449Provenance investigation of Neolithic marble vases from Limeraria, Thassos: Imported marble to

Thassos?

M. UNTERWURZACHER, H. STADLER and P. MIRWALD ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 451-458Provenance study of Roman marble artefacts of an excavation near Oberdrauburg (Carinthia, Austria)

L. LAZZARINI ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 459-484The distribution and re-use of the most important coloured marbles in the provinces of the Roman

Empire

M. MARIOTTINI, E. CURTI and E. MOSCETTI ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 485-493The taste of the marbles in Roman villae (Tiburtina-Nomentana)

L. LAZZARINI and S. CANCELLIERE .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 495-508Marmor Thessalicum (verde antico): Source, distribution and characterization

P. LAPUENTE, B. TURI and Ph. BLANC ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 509-522Marbles and coloured stones from the theatre of Caesaraugusta (Hispania): Preliminary study

R.H. TYKOT, G.E. BORROMEO, C. CORRADO-GOULET and K. SEVERSON ....................................................................................................................... 523-532Marble sculptures from the Rhode Island School of Design: Provenance studies using stable isotope

and other analysis

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J. J. HERRMANN, Jr., R. NEWMAN and A. VAN DEN HOEK ............................................................................................................................................................................... 533-545Identifying Dolomitic Marble 2000-2003: The Capitoline Museums, New York, and Somnus-

Hypnos in Urbisaglia

PART IV: PROVENANCE IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERISATION (OTHER STONES)

R. BUGINI and L. FOLLI ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 547-557On tesserae of Roman mosaics in Lombardy (Italy)

E. Roffia, R. Bugini and L. Folli .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 559-570Stone materials of the Roman villas around lake Garda (Italy)

P. DEGRYSE, P. MUCHEZ, E. TROGH and M. WAELKENS ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 571-580The natural building stones of Helenistic to Byzantine Sagalassos: Provenance determination through

stable isotope geochemistry

Ø.J. JANSEN, T. HELDAL, R.B. PEDERSEN, Y. RONEN and S.H.H. KALAND ...................................................................................................................... 581-595Provenance of soapstone used in medieval buildings in the Bergen region, Western Norway

B. MORONI, I. BORGIA, M. PETRELLI and P. LAPUENTE ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 597-613Archaeometry of chert tools: For a non-destructive geochemical approach

J. CASSAR .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 615-626Classifying Maltese prehistoric limestone megaliths by means of geochemical data

F. ANTONELLI, L. LAZZARINI, S. CANCELLIERE and A. SOLANO .............................................................................................................................................................. 627-643“Granito del Foro” and “Granito di Nicotera”: Archaeometric problems

O. ÖZBEK ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 645-656The prehistoric ground stone implements from Yartarla: The preliminary results of a geoarchaeolog-

ical study in Tekirdag region (Eastern Thrace)

S. CHLOUVERAKI and S. LUGLI ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 657-668Gypsum: A jewel in Minoan palatial architecture; Identification and characterization of its varieties

L. LAZZARINI and F. ATHANASIOU ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 669-676The discovery of the Greek origin of the “Breccia policroma della Vittoria”

PART V: TECHNIQUES AND DEVELOPMENTS

J. ZÖLDFÖLDI and Zs. KASZTOVSZKY .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 677-691Provenance study of Lapis Lazuli by non-destructive prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA)

F. BIRICOTTI and M. SEVERI ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 693-698A new non-destructive methodology for studying the internal structure of white marble of artistic and

archaeological interest

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PART VI: DATABASES

S. PIKE ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 699-708A stable isotope database for the ancient white marble quarries of Mount Pentelikon, Greece

G. KOKKOROU-ALEVRAS, E. POUPAKI, A. CHATZICONSTANTINOU and A. EFSTATHOPOULOS ......................................................... 709-718Corpus of ancient Greek quarries

B. SZÉKELY and J. ZÖLDFÖLDI ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 719-734Fractal analysis and quantitative fabric analysis database of West Anatolian white marbles

PART VII: STONE PROPERTIES – WEATHERING – RESTORATION

A.TSIKOURAS, K. MIHOPOULOS, K. HATZIPANAGIOTOU and N. NINIS .................................................................................................................................. 735-743Correlations of mineralogy and physical properties for stones used in the building and the restoration

of the Asklepieion at Epidauros

I. PAPAYIANNI and M. STEFANIDOU ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 745-752Study of the behaviour of Serpentinite stones used for the construction of ancient Dioklitianoupoli in

Northern Greece

M. GREENHALGH .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 753-764Where have all the columns gone? The loss and reuse of antiquities in the Eastern Mediterranean

K. KOUZELI, and E. ZGOULETA ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 765-776Gypsum at the Minoan site of Knossos: Types and deterioration

L. GIORDANI, M. ODDONE, and S. MELONI .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 777-786Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis of the marble façade of the Certosa di Pavia: Materials

provenancing and problematics related to decay

K. POLIKRETI, and Y. MANIATIS .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 787-798Ionic and charge mobility on weathered marble surfaces, studied by EPR spectroscopy

PART VIII: PIGMENTS AND PAINTINGS ON MARBLE

B. BOURGEOIS and Ph. JOCKEY ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 799-809Polychrome Hellenistic sculpture in Delos: Research on surface treatments of ancient marble sculp-

ture - Part II

A. G. KARYDAS, H. BRECOULAKI, B. BOURGEOIS and Ph. JOCKEY .................................................................................................................................................... 811-829In-situ X-Ray Fluorescence analysis of raw pigments and traces of polychromy on Hellenistic sculpture

at the archaeological museum of Delos

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PRÉFACE

L’acronyme ASMOSIA désigne l’Association pour l’étude du marbre et autres pierres dans l’Antiquité(Association for the Study of Marble and Other Stones in Antiquity), fondée lors d’un atelier de recherche

avancée de l’OTAN qui s’est tenu à l’hôtel Il Ciocco, à Lucca, en Italie, du 9 au 13 mai 1988. L’atelier

était intitulé : Le marbre en Grèce ancienne et à Rome : Géologie, carrières, commerce et artefacts. Il fut

suivi par une cinquantaine de participants qui représentaient de nombreuses professions : des physi-

ciens, travaillant dans le domaine de l’archéométrie, des archéologues, des historiens de l’art et des

conservateurs. Il fut organisé par Marc Waelkens et Norman Herz avec le but affiché d’encourager les

projets associant scientifiques, historiens de l’art et autres pour une meilleure compréhension des ques-

tions relevant de l’usage de la pierre par les Anciens. À la suite de cet atelier, une série de rencontres

fut programmée tous les deux ans et demi environ : la seconde rencontre eut lieu du 16 au 20 octobre

1990 à Louvain, en Belgique ; la troisième du 17 au 19 mai 1993 à Athènes, en Grèce ; la quatrième

du 9 au 13 octobre 1995 à Bordeaux, en France ; la cinquième du 11 au 15 juin 1998 à Boston, aux

États-Unis ; la sixième du 15 au 18 juin 2000 à Venise, en Italie ; la septième du 15 au 20 septembre

2003 à Liménas, sur l’île de Thasos, en Grèce. Cette série de colloques fait partie intégrante de l’asso-

ciation ASMOSIA : ils ont pour objectif de promouvoir la collaboration entre les sciences, l’archéologie

et l’histoire de l’art pour une meilleure compréhension de l’exploitation, du transport, du traitement

et de l’emploi de la pierre brute dans l’Antiquité.

La publication des actes a été bien accueillie à la fois par les historiens de l’art, les archéologues et la

communauté scientifique, comme par les corps de conservateurs; elle a contribué à susciter une coopé-

ration interdisciplinaire sans cesse élargie. Dans la mesure où, avant la création de l’association, cette

coopération était minimale, ce fut là, en fait, un progrès décisif. Pour la bonne organisation et la publi-

cation de ces rencontres, on a également eu la chance de bénéficier du soutien financier d’agences nationales

et internationales, comme la fondation Samuel H. Kress Foundation, l’OTAN, etc.

Le nombre de membres de l’association a plus que quadruplé, passant de 50 en 1988 à environ 250

aujourd’hui, représentant 25 pays. En dehors des actes de colloques, ASMOSIA publie également àraison de deux fois par an l’ASMOSIA Newsletter.

À ce jour, ce domaine de la recherche a fait preuve d’importantes avancées dans la mesure où les sources

matérielles dont on dispose pour l’usage du marbre et des autres pierres dans l’Antiquité ont été lar-gement étudiées et où les matériaux eux-mêmes ont fait l’objet de caractérisations géologiques et

physico-chimiques. Les bases de données avec leurs paramètres analytiques se sont développées et les

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caractéristiques de différents types de pierres brutes se sont accumulées. Bien des problèmes archéolo-giques ou relevant de l’histoire de l’art trouvent désormais une meilleure réponse et une meilleure explicationpar le recours aux analyses scientifiques et aux bases de données, qu’il s’agisse de la provenance, de l’iden-tification, de la diffusion, du traitement, des assemblages et de la préservation d’importants artefacts.

Le 7e colloque international de l’association ASMOSIA s’est tenu à Liménas, la ville principale et leport de l’île de Thasos, en Grèce. Il a été organisé par le laboratoire d’archéométrie-NCSR « Demokritos »,l’École française d’Athènes, la 18e éphorie des antiquités préhistoriques et classiques, l’IGME (Instituteof Geology and Mineral Exploration). Le comité d’organisation, composé de Y. Maniatis, K. Polikreti,Z. Bonias, S. Papadopoulos, T. Kozelj, M. Wurch-Kozelj et M. Varti-Mataranga, tient à adresser ses

remerciements à la Municipalité de Thasos qui a mis à disposition la salle de conférences du « Kalogeriko »

et a tout mis en œuvre pour faciliter le bon déroulement du colloque, le ministère grec de la culture

et le ministère grec de l’Égée ainsi que l’Association des entreprises du marbre de Thrace et de Macédoine

pour leur soutien financier.

Ce volume réunit les contributions présentées au 7e colloque international de l’association ASMOSIA.

Les thèmes abordés dans ces communications sont à la pointe du domaine interdisciplinaire où se rejoi-

gnent les sciences, l’archéologie et l’histoire de l’art ; ils reflètent un large spectre de la recherche poursuivie

sur les pierres grâce à la coopération des sciences et des humanités. En particulier, les thèmes abordés

recouvrent presque tous les aspects qui concernent la pierre depuis la carrière jusqu’au produit décoré

dans son état final, sans exclure les questions du vieillissement et de la restauration.

Tous les textes soumis pour publication dans ces actes ont fait l’objet d’une révision attentive par un

ou plusieurs réviseurs, ce qui en garantit le haut niveau, le caractère innovant et la portée scientifique.

En la matière, nous exprimons nos sincères remerciements aux membres du comité exécutif de l’asso-

ciation ASMOSIA, N. Herz, L. Lazzarini, P. Storemyr, J.J. Herrmann Jr., Ph. Jockey, S. Kane, J. Harrell,

ainsi qu’aux members du comité scientifique du colloque qui ont apporté leur concours à la difficile

révision des textes présentés dans ce volume.

En outre, nous voulons remercier V. Zatta, secrétaire de l’Institute of Materials Science-NCSR

« Demokritos » pour son aide dans le traitement des actes et les étudiants-chercheurs du laboratoire

d’archéométrie-NCSR « Demokritos » D. Tambakopoulos et M. Maniati pour leur aide dans l’orga-

nisation et la relecture des épreuves.

Nous tenons aussi à exprimer notre plus profonde gratitude à l’École française d’Athènes et, en parti-culier, à son directeur, le professeur D. Mulliez : l’École française d’Athènes, en effet, a supporté la

totalité du coût de fabrication et du travail de publication des actes dans le Supplément 51 du Bulletinde Correspondance Hellénique. Nos remerciements vont également à Sandrine Huber, ancienne adjointeaux publications de l’École française d’Athènes, et à Catherine Aubert, qui lui a succédé à ce poste,pour la part qu’elles ont prise dans l’élaboration de la publication.

Yannis Maniatis

Président de l’association ASMOSIA

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PREFACE

ASMOSIA stands for the Association for the Study of Marble and Other Stones in Antiquity and was

founded at a NATO sponsored Advanced Research Workshop held at Il Ciocco, Lucca, Italy, 9-13 May,

1988. The Workshop was entitled, “Marble in Ancient Greece and Rome: Geology, Quarries, Commerce,

Artifacts” and was attended by fifty persons representing many varied professions: physical scientists

working in Archaeometry, archaeologists, art historians, and conservators. It was organized by Marc

Waelkens and Norman Herz with the avowed goal of encouraging collaborative projects among sci-

entists, art historians and others in order to better understand the problems associated with ancient

man’s use of stone. Following that a series of meetings were held scheduled approximately every two

and a half year: the second meeting was held October 16-20, 1990 in Leuven, Belgium; the third May

17-19, 1993, in Athens, Greece; the fourth October 9-13, 1995 in Bordeaux, France; the fifth June

11-15, 1998, in Boston, USA; the sixth June 15-18, 2000 in Venice, Italy; and the seventh in September

15-20, 2003 at Limenas on the Island of Thassos, Greece. These series of conferences form an integral

part of the Association for the Study of Marble and Other Stones Used in Antiquity (ASMOSIA) and

their aim is to promote the combined scientific, archaeological and art-historical research for a better

understanding of the exploration, transportation, treatment and use of stone raw materials in Antiquity.

The publications of the proceedings have been well received by both the art historical, archaeological,

and scientific, as well as museum communities and have helped to inspire an ever increasing interdis-

ciplinary cooperation. Since previous to ASMOSIA, such cooperation was minimal, this has indeed

been a great accomplishment. We have also been fortunate in receiving financial support for our meetings

and publications from national and international agencies, such as the Samuel H. Kress Foundation,

NATO etc.

Membership in ASMOSIA has grown over four-fold, from under 50 in 1988 to about 250 now and

representing 25 countries. Publications apart from the conference proceedings include the currentlytwice-yearly ASMOSIA Newsletter.

Today, the field has witnessed important advances as the raw material sources for marble and otherstones used in Antiquity have been studied to a great extend and the materials have been characterisedgeologically and physicochemically. The databases with analytical parameters have been expanding and

experience with the characteristics of different types of raw stone materials has been accumulating. Many

archaeological and art-historical problems can now be better resolved and explained using the advancedscientific methods and databases. Such problems may be related to provenance, identification, movement,treatment, assemblages and preservation of important artifacts.

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The 7th International ASMOSIA Conference was held at Limenas, the main town and harbour of theisland of Thassos, Greece. It was organized by the Laboratory of Archaeometry-NCSR “Demokritos”,the French School at Athens, the 18th Ephoreia of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities and the Instituteof Geology and Mineral Exploration. The Organizing Committee, Y. Maniatis, K. Polikreti, Z. Bonias,S. Papadopoulos, T. Kozelj, M. Wurch-Kozelj and M. Varti-Mataranga would like to thank and

acknowledge the Municipal Authorities of Thassos for providing the Conference building “Kalogeriko”

and all the necessary facilities in order to make this Conference possible, the financial support of the

Greek Ministry of Culture, the financial support of the Greek Ministry of the Aegean and the financial

support of the Association of Marble Enterprises of Macedonia and Thrace.

This book contains the papers submitted to the 7th International ASMOSIA Conference. The sub-

jects of the papers represent the state-of-the art in the field and reflect a very broad range of research

and applications carried out in cooperation between the sciences and the humanities. In particular, the

subjects cover almost everything on stone from the quarry to the final decorated object, including even

aspects of weathering and restoration.

All the papers submitted for publication in these proceedings went under a peer reviewing process by

one or more reviewers. This guarantees that the papers published in this volume are of high standards,

innovative and scientifically sound.

For this, we expresses his sincere thanks to the Executive Committee of ASMOSIA, N. Herz, L. Lazzarini,

P. Storemyr, J.J. Herrmann Jr., Ph. Jockey, S. Kane, J. Harrell, and the Scientific Committee of the

Conference and also to other professional colleagues who helped with the difficult task of reviewing

the papers presented in this volume.

In addition, we want to thank Mrs V. Zatta, the Secretary of the Institute of Materials Science of NCSR

“Demokritos” for her help in processing the proceedings and the research students of the Laboratory

of Archaeometry-NCSR “Demokritos” Mr. D. Tambakopoulos and Mrs. M. Maniati for their help in

organising and proof readings of the papers.

We also expresses his deepest gratitude to the French School at Athens and particularly to its Director

prof. D. Mulliez for undertaking the full cost and effort of publication of the proceedings as Supplement 51of the Bulletin de Correspondance Hellénique. Thanks are also due to Mrs. S. Huber, former publication

officer of the French School, and Mrs. C. Aubert, present publication officer, for organizing the pub-

lication.

Yannis Maniatis

Current President of ASMOSIA

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THE ISLAND OF THASSOS

AND THE AEGEAN IN THE PREHISTORY

Ch. KOUKOULI-CHRYSANTHAKI and S. PAPADOPOULOS

18th Ephoreia of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities, Ministry of Culture

ABSTRACT

In this paper a synopsis of the archaeological research in Thassos connected with the one in the Aegean isattempted. Indications for the earliest human activity in the island come from the ochre mines at Tzines.The research at Limenaria and Kastri have brought into light Neolithic strata, dated from 6th to 4th mill.Excavation of FN/EBA deposits at Ayios Ioannis and Limenaria contributed in the study of this transitionalperiod in the North Aegean. Excavation at Skala Sotiros revealed the Aegean characteristics of an advancedphase of EBA in Thassos. Surveys confirmed a movement towards the interior of the island since the LBA.New archaeological data allowed discussions on the island settlement patterns and cultural process, reveal-ing contacts between Thassos and the Aegean as well.

KEYWORDS: THASSOS, AEGEAN, PREHISTORY, PALAEOLITHIC, NEOLITHIC, BRONZE AGE,IRON AGE, ARCHAEOLOGY, SETTLEMENT, EXCAVATION

INTRODUCTION

The Aegean World is characterized by geophysical diversity and segmentation. The com-munication between the islands and the mainland coasts followed initially the ways deter-mined by the sea currents and the possibilities of the coastal navigation. A number of fac-tors have influenced the formation of the economic and cultural exchange networks duringthe prehistory. These factors sometimes defined the common characteristics of a unified cul-tural region but, in other cases, they created autonomous unities like Crete, or complexeslike the Cyclades, or even unities of island and nearby mainland areas connected with bi-directional links. Thassos could be placed in this last case (fig. 1).

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2 Ch. KOUKOULI-CHRYSANTHAKI and S. PAPADOPOULOS

The geographical location of Thassos at the northern edge of the Aegean and at a small dis-tance from the shores of Macedonia and Thrace (PERISSORATIS et al. 1987; KRAFT et al. 1982)played a definitive role in its cultural development. The neighboring with the Balkans andAsia Minor facilitated the communication of the island with the mainland areas of Europeand Asia. On the other hand, Thassos, based on its self-sufficiency provided by its fertile andrich in raw materials soil (LESPEZ and PAPADOPOULOS 2002; LESPEZ et al. 2004; Anschnitt1988), was detached from the exclusive dependence on a sea commerce economy.

According to the existent archaeological evidence, the earliest human activity in the Aegeanis the mining, dated already in the Palaeolithic period in two islands: Thassos and Melos. InThassos, at the site Tzines (fig. 2), ochre mines dated in the Late Palaeolithic have come intolight (KOUKOULI-CHRYSANTHAKI et al. 1988; KOUKOULI-CHRYSANTHAKI and WEISGERBER

1999). Ocher was being collected by digging out the hematite deposits through undergroundtunnels, using pebbles as hammering tools and animal horns as wedges. A similar case ofsystematic collection and quarrying of a stone material is represented in Melos, where theobsidian is quarried from Palaeolithic to the Bronze Age period (TORRENCE 1986; KARIMALI

1994 and 2001). Sites of the Mesolithic, the Early Neolithic but also the first phases of MiddleNeolithic are known up to now only in the periphery of the Aegean basin; specifically the

Fig. 1. — Prehistoric sites on the Thassos island.

¶·Ï·ÈÔÏÈıÈÎfi ÔÚ˘¯Â›Ô fl¯Ú·˜

Palaeolithic Ochre Mines20000 .X./BC

NÂÔÏÈıÈ΋ ¶ÂÚ›Ô‰Ô˜

Neolithic Period6000-3500 .X./BC

¶ÚÒÈÌË EÔ¯‹ X·ÏÎÔ‡

Early Bronze Age3500-1500 .X./BC

⁄ÛÙÂÚË EÔ¯‹ X·ÏÎÔ‡

Late Bronze Age1500-1100 .X./BC

EÔ¯‹ ™È‰‹ÚÔ˘

Iron Age1100-800 .X./BC

§·ÙÔÌÂ›Ô ¶˘ÚÈÙfiÏÈıÔ˘

Flint Quarry

§·ÙÔÌÂ›Ô X·Ï·˙›·

Quartz Quarry

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THE ISLAND OF THASSOS AND THE AEGEAN IN THE PREHISTORY 3

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Sporades, Euboea, Chios and Crete. Only towards the end of the Middle Neolithic and inthe beginning of the Late Neolithic, sites in more distant, smaller and less fertile islands, namelyin the Cyclades, but also in the North Aegean, as Samothrace and Thassos, are settled(PAPATHANASSOPOULOS 1996; DEMOULE and PERLES 1993).

THE NEOLITHIC PERIOD

During the Neolithic Period, the extended settlements are absent in the Aegean with the ex-ception of the site at Knossos. We have to do mostly with small occupations in the Cyclades,such as Saliangos, Ftelia, Strofilas and Kephala, with an architecture based on stone buildingsand constructions of small dimensions and of a compact arrangement, occasionally protectedby stone built enclosures (EVANS and REFREW 1968; COLEMAN 1977; PAPATHANASSOPOULOS

1996). In Thassos, most Neolithic settlements are located in the south part of the island. Asettlement with well-defined Aegean features is the one at Kastri, where the excavationsbrought to light stone buildings and a fortification wall, also built in stone (KOUKOULI-CHRYSANTHAKI 1972-1980). On the other hand, the coastal settlement at Limenaria, dated

Fig. 2. — Tzines: Ochre mine.

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4 Ch. KOUKOULI-CHRYSANTHAKI and S. PAPADOPOULOS

with calibrated C-14 in the middle of the 6th millennium B.C. (MANIATIS and FAKORELLIS

2003) is characterized by a mixed architectural tradition, with the combined presence of char-acteristics of Northern Greek but also of Central Aegean architecture: the post-holed housescoexist with stone-built constructions, such as retaining walls, banks and benches (fig. 3)(MALAMIDOU 1996 and 2003; PAPADOPOULOS and MALAMIDOU 2001; PAPADOPOULOS andMALAMIDOU 2008).

The study of the Neolithic artifacts, mostly of the pottery, reveals also multiple ‘connections’.One can easily trace similarities with Eastern Macedonia in the decorated pottery of the LateNeolithic (fig. 4), but also with the Aegean Thrace and Western Turkey in the shapes of thevases and in the types of figurines. On the other hand, some of the earliest pottery wareslike those decorated with white on black, and the abundant appearance of the eight-shapedstone weights, probably related to fishery, have obviously more references to the Central andEastern Aegean or even to the Thessaly coasts, already in the middle of the 6th millennium(PAPADOPOULOS and MALAMIDOU 2003; PAPADOPOULOS 2003a).

Obsidian blades from Limenaria show the incorporation of the island in the trading networkof the Melos obsidian, better operating in the Aegean from the earliest phases of the LateNeolithic. Obsidian was going around in a widespread zone that included Cyclades,Dodekannese, Crete, Peloponesse, Central Greece, Thessaly, and to a lesser extent Macedoniaand Thrace. The Neolithic obsidian samples from Thassos, analyzed in ‘Demokritos’, indicatedthat the raw material source was Adamas mine in Melos, supplier of about 80% of Neolithicsites of the Greek and Aegean regions. It means that Thassos as well, follows the familiarNeolithic trading pattern, in agreement with a model of terrestrial distribution, accordingto which smaller numbers are anticipated the more the distance from Melos (KARIMALI 2001).

Recently we acquired information for the origin of a number of marble vases from the Ne-olithic settlement at Limenaria. Their analysis determined as the place of origin of the rawmaterial the region of Cyclades, possibly Naxos (MANIATIS et al. 2009). This recent discoverypuzzles us, since marble is a material abundant in Thassos. This questioning is amplified by,the so far, lack of settlements in these early phases in Cyclades. Nevertheless, the frequent ap-pearance of marble vases, figurines, and jewelry in the Neolithic settlements in Peloponnese,Thessaly and Macedonia necessitates the broadening of the research, to include marble ob-jects of these settlements too (PAPATHANASSOPOULOS 1996).

Sites of the Final Neolithic in the islands of the Central Aegean have offered invaluable evi-dence for the local metalworking. Copper, gold and silver artifacts, mostly jewelry and weapons,become more and more common after the middle of the 5th millennium all over the Aegeanarea (PAPATHANASSOPOULOS 1996). The most characteristic artifact of the Final Neolithic isa circular pendant, which is produced in gold, silver, and also stone (DEMAKOPOULOU 1999).Gold artifacts like those of Aravissos show that we are ignorant of the real extent of metal-lurgy in areas like Macedonia, perhaps because such objects are related with cemeteries, whichhave not been located yet (GRAMMENOS 1997; VOKOTOPOULOU 1996). In Thassos, scien-tific analyses of lead isotopes in copper objects from Kastri speculate the presence of local

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THE ISLAND OF THASSOS AND THE AEGEAN IN THE PREHISTORY 5

Fig. 4. — Kastri: vase with graphite decoration.

Fig. 3. — Limenaria: Late Neolithic clay structure.

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6 Ch. KOUKOULI-CHRYSANTHAKI and S. PAPADOPOULOS

Thassian copper, as well as copper from Laurion already from the Final Neolithic Period (GALE

1992; KOUKOULI-CHRYSANTHAKI 1992).

The end of the Neolithic Period and the transition to the Bronze Age remains unreadable forthe island of Thassos. In the settlement of Limenaria, the layers of the Bronze Age belong tolater phases of the Early Bronze Age (MALAMIDOU and PAPADOPOULOS 1997, 1999; PA-PADOPOULOS and MALAMIDOU 2008), whereas in the Kastri settlement the whole periodseems to be absent (KOUKOULI-CHRYSANTHAKI 1972-1980). This gap will hopefully be cov-ered by the recent excavation project in a coastal settlement, the site of Ayios Ioannis inSouth-Eastern Thassos, which radiocarbon dating places in the middle of the 4th millenniumB.C. (MANIATIS and PAPADOPOULOS 2004; PAPADOPOULOS et al. 2002). We do not have yetimportant building remains in this site, but some pottery wares resemble those of the earliestphases of the Bronze Age in the Southern Aegean and the Eastern Macedonia. We have not lo-cated Neolithic cemeteries in Thassos, unless we are right in considering two trapezoid cistsfrom Ayios Ioannis as burials, looking very similar to these found at the cemeteries at Cycladesand Euboia (SAMPSON 1993; COLEMAN 1977). On the other hand, the burial of an infant in astorage pit at Limenaria is most probably consistent with the familiar Northern Greece tradi-tion (TRIANDAPHYLLOU 2003; AGELARAKIS and EFSTRATIOU 1996).

THE BRONZE AGE

In the Early Bronze Age, period of flourishing in the Aegean, a variety of settlement patternsappear in its islands, and stone structures are dominant all over (BARBER 1987; DOUMAS andLA ROSA 1997; HÄGG and KONSOLA 1986; KOUKA 1996). In Southern Greece early urbansettlements are being constructed, fortified with walls and bastions, with a dense urban plan-ning and with central buildings of large dimensions, for example the two-storey houses withcorridors (COSMOPOULOS 1995). At Aegina, Argolide, the Cyclades, Sporades, and at coastalsites of Asia Minor, we can also encounter fortified occupations that resemble castles, like theone of Troy, which was not unique, as recent excavations at Liman Tepe near Smyrna hasshown. At the North East Aegean, big islands like Lemnos, Chios, and Lesbos constitute suit-able territory for the development of real cities with an impressive expanse and town-planningorganization, like that one at Poliochni in Lemnos and Thermi in Lesbos. Finally, in Crete,agricultural villages like Myrtos co-exist next to well-organized luxurious settlements like theone of Vassiliki, which declares the spatial organization of the first palaces (PREZIOSI 1983;BRANIGAN 1995).

At Thassos, the analogies with the Aegean islands are now dominating and this is perhaps thereason for the appearance of coastal sites. The settlements at Skala Sotiros and Limenaria givewitness to a high dependence on the settlement pattern of the smaller Aegean islands, wherethe fortified, small-sized castles prevail. The settlement at Skala Sotiros (KOUKOULI-CHRYSAN-THAKI 1988-1993; PAPADOPOULOS et al. 2002) with the stone buildings, enclosed by an also

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stone-built fortification wall (fig. 5) resembles similar acropoles in the sites of the westerncoast of Asia Minor like Liman Tepe and Troy or some fortified settlements in the Cyclades is-lands (ERKANAL 1997; KORFMANN et al. 1997; BARBER 1987). The pottery of the site hasanalogies with northern Aegean shapes like «‰¤·˜ ·ÌÊÈ·ÂÏÏÔÓ», but also with vases ofthe settlements of Central and Eastern Macedonia (BERNABO BREA 1964; BLEGEN et al. 1950;ASLANIS 1985).

The character of this small settlement at Thassos, dated in the 3rd millennium, has not beendefined yet. However its small area and the type of the buildings that have been fragmentallyrevealed at its interior, indicate an occupation with a special role. The dynamics of the socialhierarchy at Thassos before the 3rd millennium B.C. are represented by human-shaped stelaesculptured on marble or on gneiss, representing the figure of a warrior as a symbolic exem-plary of the patriarchic society (fig. 6). A great number of such stelae have been used asconstruction material at the settlement of Skala Sotiros, but surface findings from other partsof the island give witness that the anthropomorphous stelae were common to the whole of theisland (PAPADOPOULOS 2002, 2005), possibly surviving to the later stages of the Bronze Ageand the Early Iron Age (KOUKOULI-CHRYSANTHAKI 1992).

Fig. 5. — Skala Sotiros: Early Bronze Age castle.

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8 Ch. KOUKOULI-CHRYSANTHAKI and S. PAPADOPOULOS

We know very little of the occupation at Limenaria for the same period, but the strongstonewalls that are being traced also resemble the Aegean tradition (PAPADOPOULOS andMALAMIDOU 1998; PAPADOPOULOS and BECHTSI 2003). A stone-paved area that was exca-vated at this site containing a large number of standing-up stones does not have, for the timebeing, neither Aegean nor Balkanic resemblances unless we associate it with the earlier stelaeof Skala Sotiros, ignoring either way its purpose. In both settlements stones with cavities havecome into light, that are most commonly known in Southern Aegean as ΤÚÓÔÈ or offering ta-bles (fig. 7) (PELON 1988; VAN EFFENTERRE 1955). On the other hand, stone axes with a holefor a shaft must also represent, prestigious objects possibly of a sympolic issue. One of them,found at Skala Sotiros, has elaborate decoration equivalent of the alleged ‘scepter of Malia’(PAPADOPOULOS et al. 2002).

Fig. 6. — Skala Sotiros: statue of gneiss.Fig. 7. — Limenaria: ‘offering table’.

76

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At the 3rd millennium metals either as raw materials or as objects constitute one of the mostimportant basis for the development of a more intensive marine commerce in the whole of theAegean. The metal deposits of Siphnos and of Laurion towards the end of the Neolithic and atthe beginning of the Bronze Age period supply systematically the settlements of the Cycladesand Attica, that – due to the neighboring to those two sources – play the leading part, to leadtreatment for the production of silver (DOUNI and KAKAVOYIANNI 2002; BASSIAKOS andWAGNER 2002). The ability to control those metal sources perhaps constitutes one of the mostimportant reasons of the development of important early urban city centers like Troy and Po-liochni, where treasures of gold and copper jewelry have come into light (DOUMAS and LA

ROSA 1997; KORFMANN 1995).

At Thassos, archaeological finds in combination with physicochemical analyses tend to con-firm the early appearance of the Thassian gold in jewelry of the Early Bronze Age, like thebutton-shaped clothe-ornament from Skala Sotiros, identical with those of Troy (KOUKOULI-CHYSANTHAKI 1988-1993). Also the layers of the Final (Neolithic/Early Bronze Age) atLimenaria have offered a great number of slag, proof of a local treatment of copper, as well asparts of litharge, witness of a local production of silver (PAPADOPOULOS 2008). Technologically,the treatment of copper and silver at Thassos is not far from what we know in metallurgy cen-ters of the Aegean, like Kythnos, Serifos, and Chryssokamino of Crete (PAPADOPOULOS 2008).Nevertheless, the trade of other raw material, namely obsidian and flint, still continues to takeplace. Thassos continues to obtain obsidian from Adamas, following the older tradition, incontrast to the new fashion that sets raw material from Demenegaki as much more popular.

The transition from the Early to the Middle Bronze Age takes place in different ways in the dif-ferent areas of the Aegean World. In Crete, it is characterized by deep social and economicchanges that lead to the appearance of the palatial system. The Central, Southern, and North-ern Greece, Eastern Aegean and the Cyclades, appear as unities that tend to be differentiatedfrom each other more and more. Northern Greece receives during the 2nd millennium strongerinfluences from the Balkan region, and continues conservatively the tradition of the EarlyBronze Age. Exceptions are only some settlements at Chalkidiki, where influences are noticedfrom the southern Helladic region like the introduction of wheeled, so-called minyan pottery,of which however local hand-made imitations appear in Central Macedonia as well (HEURTLEY

1939). The Middle Bronze Age is characterized by the dynamic presence of Minoan traders inthe whole of the Aegean and possible in the Black Sea as well, witnessed by the discovery of claystamps with symbols of Linear A at Samothrace and the Eastern Bulgaria (MATSAS 1995). TheMiddle Bronze Age is still completely unknown in Thassos. The latest phases at Skala Sotirosand Limenaria touche the beginning of the Middle Bronze Age.

The transition from the Middle to the Late Bronze Age takes place at the whole of the Aegeanregion with essential cultural changes, and is characterized as a period of renovation. The pala-tial civilization of Crete with its monumental architecture meets the highest of its peak and ofits influence to the Aegean. The mainland Greece innovations are noticed in architecture, inindustrial production, and in social organisation. In Peloponnese, proof of the accumulationof wealth and power is the emergence of the Mycenaean citadels with palaces and graves rich

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10 Ch. KOUKOULI-CHRYSANTHAKI and S. PAPADOPOULOS

in funeral offerings. At Cyclades we notice the appearance of big buildings in the centre of for-tified settlements like Fylakopi, Agia Irini of Kea, and especially Akrotiri at Thera. Theexplosion of the Thera volcano at about the middle of the 2nd millennium signifies the end ofthe peak of the island and the beginning of the end for Minoan Crete.

After the middle of the 15th century B.C. the flourishing of the Mycenaean civilization dom-inates the Aegean World. Up to the middle of the 13th century B.C. all of its characteristicstake shape and spread from Peloponnese to Thessaly: economic and political centralized or-ganization in citadels with palaces, sanctuaries and dependent settlements with a farming andsmall case industrial character, specialization of activities and standardization of production.The Mycenaean commerce, which expands after the LHIIIA, appears very dynamic in thewhole of Southern and Central Aegean up to Chios, Asia Minor, and Cyprus. In the North,dynamic Mycenaean appearance is limited in Chalkidiki, and seems to be probably weak inplaces like Thassos and the coasts of Eastern Macedonia and Thrace (WARDLE 1993; WARDLE

et al. 2003).

The island of Thassos, distant from the seaways that lead to the straits of Propondis, at the endof the 2nd millennium stays out of the movement of sea transport and commerce, and it is de-fined by its static agricultural economy. Nevertheless, at Southern Thassos during the Late

Fig. 8. — Ai-Lias: Late Bronze Age tower.

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Bronze Age evidence is traced of a settlement pattern according to which Kastri is the centralsettlement with the existence of satellite occupations in its periphery (PAPADOPOULOS 2005).From those, some act as stock-farm stations, e.g. Ai-Lias and Koukoudia (fig. 8), whereas thecoastal site of Ayios Antonios at Potos must have been filling the need for a connection be-tween the central settlement and the sea. This model of settlement hierarchy makes us thinkof the possibility to have already a centre of political power, at the area of Theologos, ‘analo-gous’ to those of the Mycenaean World, that is comprised of a central acropolis that controlsand protects a number of small installations (KOUKOULI-CHRYSANTHAKI 1992; PA-PADOPOULOS and BECHTSI 2003). In any case, centres of similar types have also been traced byarchaeological investigations in Central Macedonia, where the excavations at the value ofAxios (Kastanas), at the area of Langadas (Assiros), and in the city of Thessaloniki (Toumba)have revealed central fortified occupations with collective storage buildings, destined for thestorage and re-distribution of the surplus of the agricultural production of a greater commu-nity (ANDREOU and KOTSAKIS 1987; ANDREOU and KOTSAKIS 1996; WARDLE 1988). Fromthe study of the local hand-made pottery it also comes out that Thassos is incorporated intothe ‘cultural community’ that was formed at the East of Axios River in Macedonia and theAegean Thrace. In these areas population groups move about and cultural currents with a bi-directional movement between the coastal areas and Central Balkans have been observed(KOUKOULI-CHRYSANTHAKI 1982a; KIRIATZI et al. 1997).

The relations between Thassos and the Mycenaean World is certified by the presence of Myce-naean pottery – imports and locally made or sometimes handmade imitations in local clay –which are met not only at Thassos (PAPADOPOULOS 2003b), but also from the inland of thePangaion mountain up to the current boarders with Bulgaria (KOUKOULI-CHRYSANTHAKI

1980; VALLA 2004). Connected with the Mycenaean commerce are even beads made of glassas well as bronze Mycenaean weapons, swords and lances, imported or locally imitated. Thebuilt graves in the cemeteries of the Late Bronze Age at Kastri also refer to the Aegean World(figs 9-10). Their circular plan, the primitive corbelled roof, as well as the multiple burialsrefer to similar types of graves and burial customs found in the remote mountain settlementsin the Aegean, like the one of Karphi in Crete.

THE IRON AGE

The end of the Mycenaean World in the beginning of the 11th century B.C. opens a newchapter in the history of the Aegean World. This period that is characterized as ‘Dark Ages,must not have been very dark for the Aegean, since it contained all the forces that led to its ex-plosive flourishing during the Archaic period. Iron metallurgy known already by the 12thcentury B.C. in the Aegean World, at the 11th century B.C. spreads progressively and replacescopper for weapons and tools not only in south Greece but in the North too. In SouthernGreece, Protogeometric and Geometric period, as the period from the 11th up to the 8th cen-tury B.C. is named conventionally, rescue and transform the tradition of the Mycenaean

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Fig. 9. — Larnaki: LBA/EIA cemetery.Fig. 10. — Tsiganadika: LBA/EIA tomb.

9

10

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World, and prepare the new chapter of the Greek Civilization, with starting point the firstGreek colonization in the Aegean and in the Western coasts of Asia Minor.

The changes that take place at Thassos at the same period are not clear since it seems that cul-tural continuity prevails. At the settlement of Kastri and its extended cemeteries around it,excavations document this lack of gap in the cultural continuity.

During the Early Iron Age, the Kastri settlement appears to have gone through a great popu-lation flourishing, proved not only by the extended cemeteries, but also from the existence ofsmall dependent settlements around the fortified citadel. On the top of the hill Kastri, a cen-tral part of the fortress is apparent with a continuous building complex and a fortifiedsurrounding wall. Inside the fortress and on the slopes of the hill, stone built apsidal houseshave been excavated (KOUKOULI-CHRYSANTHAKI 1982b). This type of the single room apsidalhouse is well known from the southern Greece during the Geometric and Archaic periods(MAZARAKIS AINIAN 2001).

The stone-built graves also resemble Aegean examples scattered from upland Crete to theAegean Thrace. The clusters of family graves with multiple burials in their interior and infantburials into pithoi reflect the existence of big families in a society of land and stock farmers, or-ganized in tribal areas with fortified acropolis and isolated towers to provide security.

Although Thassos is not mentioned by Homer, according to archaeological finds the islandwas not cut out from the rest of the Aegean World. During the Early Iron Age among thelocal hand-made vases, other hand-made vases also appear, copying the wheel-made vesselsof prorogeometric style. At the same period, bronze fibulae of Aegean type co-exist with thelocal bronze jewelry. Physicochemical analyses of metal objects from Kastri prove the use ofThassian copper in tools, weapons and jewelry, while the analysis of a gold hair ring of thesame site supports the suggestion for the presence of thassian gold in jewelry (VAVELIDIS

1992). On the other hand, the analysis of a lead talent and of smelting slag of copper andiron, confirm that at the Kastri settlement – during the Late Bronze and the Early Iron Age– (KOUKOULI-CHRYSANTHAKI 1992) there was practice of extractive metallurgy, from the lo-cal ores of copper (GALE 1992), lead (PERNICKA et al. 1992) and iron (PHOTOS 1992).

Towards the end of the Early Iron Age begins a new period of economic trading and culturalcontacts for Thassos. It is represented by the appearance of wheel made vases analogous to theones going around at the coasts of Macedonia, at the islands of North East Aegean, and at theNorthwestern coasts of Asia Minor. With the resumption of cultural links with the Aegean,which may also be related to the arrival of the Phoenicians to Thassos and the exploitation ofthe gold mines of the island, prehistoric Thassos is on the verge of the historical period. Duringthis period – the end of 8th B.C. century – a new coastal settlement appeared at the north-eastern edge of the island at the site of the Parian colony of Thassos. Building remains of thissettlement have been located by P. Bernard in the ancient city of Thassos at a small distancefrom the sanctuary of Artemis, in a deep stratigraphical section, under the earliest habitationlayers of the Parian colony (BERNARD 1964; KROLL et al. 2002).

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18 Ch. KOUKOULI-CHRYSANTHAKI and S. PAPADOPOULOS

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