8=SOUTH-AMERICA geosector - Bienvenue / Welcome - 1999-2000...8= SOUTH-AMERICA geosector Observatoire Linguistique Linguasphere Observatory page 569 8=SOUTH-AMERICA geosector dition

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  • 8= SOUTH-AMERICA geosector Observatoire Linguistique Linguasphere Observatory page 569

    8=SOUTH-AMERICA geosector

    dition princeps DU RPERTOIRE DE LA LINGUASPHRE 1999-2000

    publie en ligne et mise jour ds novembre 2012

    foundation edition THE LINGUASPHERE REGISTER 1999-2000 published online & updated from November 2012

    This geosector covers 121 sets of languages (= 415 outer languages, comprising 964 inner languages) spoken or

    formerly spoken by traditional "Amerindian" communities across South America and southern Meso-America (since

    before the arrival of speakers of Indo-European languages, principally [51=] Espaol and Portugus, but also [51=] Franais and [52=] English and Nederlands).

    13 sets are treated within three phylozones, 80=, 82= and 88=, while the remaining 110 sets are classified

    geographically within seven geozones. Geozone 81= covers languages spoken by communities in southern Meso-America and parts of northern South America, and the geozones 83=, 84= and 85=, in geographic sequence, cover languages spoken by communities in the Andean regions, southward as far as Tierra del Fuego. Geozones 86=, 87=

    and 89= cover languages spoken by communities in the Mato Grosso, in the Amazon Basin and in northeastern Brazil.

    80= CARIBIC phylozone 81= INTER-OCEAN geozone 82= ARAWAKIC phylozone

    83= PRE-ANDES geozone 84= ANDES geozone 85= CHACO-CONE geozone 86= MATO-GROSSO geozone 87= AMAZON geozone 88= TUPIC phylozone 89= BAHIA geozone

    In spelling the reference-names of languages spoken in areas where [51=] Espaol is in general use, the usages of

    the letters /c/ or /qu/ are normally preferred to use of the letter /k/, and the usage of /ch/ to the use of /sh/. In areas where [51=] Portugus is in general use, the usage of the letter /x/ is preferred to use of /sh/.

    Before consulting the following tables, please see Guide to the Register in Volume One

    Les donnes supplmentaires ou amliores sur les langues et communauts traites sous ce secteur seront accueillies

    ici : rpertoire@linguasphere.info

    Additional or improved data on languages and communities covered by this sector will

    be welcomed here : register@linguasphere.info

    COLUMN 1 & 2 layers of reference codes and reference-names

    COLUMN 3

    other nomenclature and notes

    COLUMNS 4 & 5

    nation-states scale of (+ provinces) and speakers

    80= CARIBIC phylozone

    covers the "wider Carib", "Cariban" or Yucpa+ Bakairi set;

    comprising 1 set of languages (= 37 outer languages) spoken by widely scattered communities in northern South America,

    and formerly on islands of the Caribbean:


    Brazil; Colombia; French Guiana; Guyana; Surinam; Venezuela; formerly also on Caribbean islands (most recently, Trinidad & Tobago)


    80-A YUCPA+ BAKAIRI set

    CARIBAN, "wider" carib comprising widely scattered languages, classified within 11 chains ; largely submerged < [51=] Espaol, [51=] Portugus or [52=] English

    80-AA YUCPA+ YAPRERIA chain



    80-AAA-a Yucpa yuko, yukpa, yupa, shaparu, chake, "carib" motiln, motiln-N. #motiln, motiln in [51=] Espaol = hairless Sierra de Perij mountains

    Colombia (Magdalena; Guajira); also Venezuela (Zulia)


    80-AAA-aa 'csar' Csar upper valley Colombia.

    80-AAA-ab codazzi codozzi Augustn Codazzi Colombia.

    80-AAA-ac maracas Colombia.

    80-AAA-ad iroka Colombia.

    80-AAA-b Yaprera northern Sierra de Perij mountains Venezuela (Zulia) 1

    80-AAA-ba yaprera japrera, manso* (Zulia) 1

    80-AAA-c Coyaima* extinct for several generations Colombia (Tolima) 0

    80-AAA-ca coyaima (Tolima) 0


  • page 570 The Linguasphere Register 1999 / 2000 edition

    80-AB OPN+ CARARE chain

    karare X

    80-ABA OPN+ CARARE net X 80-ABA-a Opn+ Carare Magdalena tributaries Colombia (Santander) 0

    80-ABA-aa opn opone Opone river (Santander)

    80-ABA-ab carare Carare river (Santander) 0

    80-AC CARINYA chain GALIBI, carib "proper"

    80-ACA CARINYA net

    80-ACA-a Carinya karinya, kari'nya, kalinya, karia, carina, caria, galib, carib, caribe, kribisi, caraiben, caribice, caribisce, caribisi, cariniaco geographically fragmented

    Venezuela; Guyana; Surinam; French Guiana; Brazil (Amap)


    80-ACA-aa carinya-W. murato, myrato, marato, maraworno, marworno Orinoco lower valley: Ciudad Bolvar environs (formerly) Sucre mountains Nuria plateau Barima valley Barama valley

    Venezuela (Sucre; Monagas; Anzotegui; Bolvar); Guyana (Essequibo)


    80-ACA-aaa chayma chaima, sayma, warapiche, guaga-tagare Venezuela

    80-ACA-aab tabajari Venezuela

    80-ACA-aac abarima+ barama (Essequibo)

    80-ACA-ab carib-C. submerged < [52=] Sranan Coppename lower valley Surinam (Saramacca) 3

    80-ACA-ac carib-E. tyrewuju Surinam (Marowijne); French Guiana (St.Laurent du Maroni; Cayenne); Brazil (Amap)


    80-ACA-aca maroni-N. "lower" maroni Marowijne, Maroni lower valley (Marowijne; St.Laurent du Maroni)

    80-ACA-acb maroni-S. "upper" maroni Marowijne, Maroni upper valley (Marowijne; St.Laurent du Maroni)

    80-ACA-acc approuague Approuague valley (Cayenne)

    80-ACA-acd oyapuck Oyapuck, Oiapoque valley (Cayenne; Amap)

    80-ACA-ace uac in [51=] Portugus: galib do Uac Uac valley (Amap)

    80-AD E'NYAPA chain PANARE

    80-ADA E'NYAPA net

    80-ADA-a E'nyapa Cuchivero river Venezuela (Bolvar) 3

    80-ADA-aa e'nyapa panare, panari, eye, abira (Bolvar) 3

    80-AE MAPOYO+ WAYNA chain

    mapoyo+ makiritari


    "middle" orinoco spoken by decimated and dispersed riverine groups

    80-AEA-a Mapoyo+ Wanai nearly extinct in 1970's Apure river Venezuela (Amazonas) 1

    80-AEA-aa mapoyo mapayo, mapoye, mapoi, nepoye (Amazonas)

    80-AEA-ab wanai (Amazonas)

    80-AEA-b Yabarana+ Wokiare Manapire river Venezuela (Amazonas) 1

    80-AEA-ba yabarana yavarana, yauarana (Amazonas)

    80-AEA-bb curasicana (Amazonas)

    80-AEA-bc wokiare uaiquiare, guayqueri (Amazonas)


    80-AEB-a Maquiritari makiritari, maquiritare, maquiritai, makiritare, ye'cuana Orinoco tributaries: Paragua middle river Padamo river

    Venezuela (Bolvar; Amazonas); also Brazil (Roraima)


    80-AEB-aa maquiritari-A. maquiritari "proper" Venezuela

    80-AEB-ab ye'cuana yekuana, maiongong, mayongong Venezuela

    80-AEB-ac de'cuana wainungomo Venezuela

    80-AEB-ad cunuana Venezuela

    80-AEB-ae pawana Venezuela

    80-AEB-af soto Venezuela

    80-AEB-ag ihuruana Venezuela

    80-AEB-ah maitsi Venezuela

    80-AEB-b Wayumar Brazil (Roraima) 0*

    80-AEB-ba wayumar wajumar, uaimare, guimara (Roraima) 0*



    80-AEC-a Tivericoto Venezuela (Monagas) 0

    80-AEC-aa tivericoto tiverikoto extinct (Monagas) 0

    80-AEC-b Yao Trinidad & Tobago; French Guiana 0

    80-AEC-ba yao extinct Trinidad & Tobago; French Guiana 0



    80-AED-a Wayna+ Urucena wayana Maroni river Tapanahoni upper river across Tumucumaque highlands Paru+ Jari upper rivers

    Surinam (Marowijne); French Guiana (St.Laurent du Maroni); Brazil (Par; Amap)


    80-AED-aa wayna oayana, wajana, wayana "proper", guayana "proper", uaiana, oiana, oyana

    (Marowijne); (St.Laurent du Maroni); (Par; Amap)

  • 8= SOUTH-AMERICA geosector Observatoire Linguistique Linguasphere Observatory page 571

    80-AED-ab rucuyen roucouyene, roucouyenne (Marowijne)

    80-AED-ac urucena urucuiana, urukuyana, alukuyana (Marowijne)

    80-AED-ad upurui (Marowijne)

    80-AF YAWAPER+ MAKUX chain


    80-AFA-a Makux Pacaraima highlands Venezuela (Bolvar); Brazil (Roraima); Guyana (Essequibo)


    80-AFA-aa makux makushi, macusi, macussi, teweya, teueia (Bolvar); (Roraima); (Essequibo)

    80-AFA-b Arecuna+ Taulipang Pemn, pemong Gran Sabana Venezuela (Bolivr); Brazil (Roraima); Guyana (Essequibo)


    80-AFA-ba are-cuna ari-cuna, are-kuna, jari-cuna, pemong "proper" (Bolivr); (Essequibo) 3

    80-AFA-bb taulipang taurepan, taurep (Roraima) 2

    80-AFA-bc camara-coto camara-cota, kamaraga-kok (Bolivr)

    80-AFA-bd dai-gok (Bolivr)

    80-AFA-be potsawu-gok pishau-co (Bolivr)

    80-AFA-c Acawayo+ Patamona

    Capn, kapong Guyana (Essequibo); also Venezuela (Bolivr); Brazil (Roraima)


    80-AFA-ca acawayo akawaio, acewaio, akawai, acahuayo, waic (Essequibo); (Bolivr); (Roraima) 3

    80-AFA-cb patamona in [80=] Macushi: 'ingari-k', 'ingari-c', 'ingari-k', 'ingari-c' (=bush-community)

    (Essequibo) 3

    80-AFA-cc erema-gok* (Essequibo)

    80-AFA-d Purucoto Venezuela (Bolivr); Brazil (Roraima)


    80-AFA-da puru-coto i-puri-coto, puri-coto, poro-coto, uru-coto (Bolivr); (Roraima) 0*



    80-AFB-a Sapar Brazil (Roraima) 0*

    80-AFB-aa sapar (Roraima) 0*

    80-AFB-b Pauxiana+ Paravilhana

    Brazil (Roraima) 0*

    80-AFB-ba pauxiana pawixiana, paushiana, pawishiana, pauchiana, pauchi, pauxi-W. (Roraima) 0*

    80-AFB-bb paravilhana paravilyana ; perhaps transition < [80=] Waiwai+ Hishkaryana (Roraima) 0