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CFM | Creative Metrology Creative Metrology in the world L e groupe de travail Creative Metrology lancé par le Collège français de métrologie en 2018 continue son travail de veille et d’inventaire des pratiques actuelles et de leurs évolutions afin de dresser un portrait de la métrologie du futur. Dans cette édition de CEM, nous pro- posons deux interviews d’experts étrangers qui présentent leur vision de la métrologie du futur dans l’industrie 4.0. D’une part, Jan-Theodor Jans- sen, directeur de recherche au NPL anglais et d’autre part Sascha Eichs- tädt scientifique et évangéliste digital au PTB allemand. Ils présentent com- ment les nouvelles technologies impactent le processus de mesure et la métrologie qui le sous-tend. Ils par- lent d’impression 3D, de 5G, de l’IoT, des smart sensors, du traitement des datas, de digitalisation, d’intelligence artificielle, des technologies quan- tiques, du nouveau SI… Ces thématiques seront largement reprises pendant le Congrès interna- tional de métrologie (CIM2019) qui aura lieu à Paris du 24 au 26 Sep- tembre prochain. On les retrouvera notamment lors des tables rondes (capteurs intelligents pour une pro- duction optimisée, sécurité et traça- bilité de la chaine de mesure, fabrication additive: les défis mesure et contrôle…) et lors des sessions de presentations orales (IoT: défis pour l’étalonnage, traitement des datas métrologie, SI et maintenant ?). JT Janssen et Sascha Eichstädt sont impliqués respectivement dans le comité scientifique et technique et dans le comité d’organisation du congrès CIM2019. La mesure est au centre de l’industrie 4.0. Nos voisins européens l’ont bien compris. Le think tank Creative Metro- logy vous présente ici leur vision CREATIVE METROLOGY, UN GROUPE DE TRAVAIL DU COLLÈGE FRANÇAIS DE MÉTROLOGIE © Hurca! / Adobe Stock N°67 MAI 2019 41

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Page 1: CFM | Creative Metrology Creative Metrology in the world L · industry, with quantum computers, quantum communications, quantum clocks, quantum sensors and, of course, this will require

CFM | Creative MetrologyCreative Metrologyin the world

Le groupe de travail CreativeMetrology lancé par le Collègefrançais de métrologie en 2018continue son travail de veille et

d’inventaire des pratiques actuelleset de leurs évolutions afin de dresserun portrait de la métrologie du futur.Dans cette édition de CEM, nous pro-posons deux interviews d’expertsétrangers qui présentent leur vision dela métrologie du futur dans l’industrie4.0. D’une part, Jan-Theodor Jans-sen, directeur de recherche au NPL

anglais et d’autre part Sascha Eichs-tädt scientifique et évangéliste digitalau PTB allemand. Ils présentent com-ment les nouvelles technologiesimpactent le processus de mesure etla métrologie qui le sous-tend. Ils par-lent d’impression 3D, de 5G, de l’IoT,des smart sensors, du traitement desdatas, de digitalisation, d’intelligenceartificielle, des technologies quan-tiques, du nouveau SI…Ces thématiques seront largementreprises pendant le Congrès interna-

tional de métrologie (CIM2019) quiaura lieu à Paris du 24 au 26 Sep-tembre prochain. On les retrouveranotamment lors des tables rondes(capteurs intelligents pour une pro-duction optimisée, sécurité et traça-bilité de la chaine de mesure,fabrication additive: les défis mesureet contrôle…) et lors des sessions depresentations orales (IoT: défis pourl’étalonnage, traitement des datasmétrologie, SI et maintenant ?).JT Janssen et Sascha Eichstädt sontimpliqués respectivement dans lecomité scientifique et technique etdans le comité d’organisation ducongrès CIM2019.La mesure est au centre de l’industrie4.0. Nos voisins européens l’ont biencompris. Le think tank Creative Metro-logy vous présente ici leur vision �

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Interview ofDr. Jan-Theodoor Janssen, Research Director at NPL (UK)

Dr. Jan-Theodoor (JT)Janssen was born in theNetherlands. He joined NPLin 1998, where he wasresponsible for the researchon quantum electricalstandards. At NPL, hisresearch involves a widerange of topics in solid-statephysics applied to electricalmetrology. He has co-authored more 100 scientificpublications on these topics.

In 2015, JT launched and nowheads the National GrapheneMetrology Centre (NGMC),whose role it is to developmetrology andstandardisation for thenascent graphene industry. JTis also a Scientific Co-Director of the QuantumMetrology Institute (QMI),which covers all of NPL’sleading-edge quantumscience and metrologyresearch and provides theexpertise and facilitiesneeded for academia andindustry to test, validate andultimately commercialise newquantum research and

technologies. From 2015 to2017, JT was the Head ofScience at NPL for SIMetrology. In this role he wasleading in the strategicrebalancing of the NPLscience portfolio.

From 2008 to 2016, JT wasthe contact person for NPL onthe Technical Committee forElectricity and Magnetism(TC-EM) of the EuropeanAssociation of NationalMetrology Institutes(EURAMET), and convenorof the EURAMET DCquantum metrology expertsgroup from 2010-2016, and amember of severalinternational working groups.In 2017, JT was appointed asNPL’s Director of Research.

How would you define themission of NPL?Jan-Theodoor Janssen: TheNational Physical Laboratory(NPL) is the UK’s NationalMeasurement Institute, and isa world-leading centre ofexcellence in developing andapplying the most accuratemeasurement standards, andscience and technology.

NPL is funded partly (50/50)by public funding andcommercial research income.NPL is working hand-in-handwith industry and universitiesand has more than 200 co-supervised PhD studentsshared between NPL andaround 75 differentuniversities.

NPL has defined its scientificroadmap by identifying fourmajor themes impactingsociety: Digital, Advancedmanufacturing, Health andLife Sciences, Energy andEnvironment. From thesethemes, NPL has identifiedchallenges related tometrology and a scientificprogram to tackle thesechallenges, with a short timescale (3 years) for veryapplicative problems and along-time scale (10-15 years)for more fundamental issues.

For example, in the domain ofhealth sciences:pharmaceutical companiesdevelop new medicines at avery expensive cost(estimated cost of 1.5 billionpounds to develop a newdrug). The challenge here isto determine as soon aspossible which drugs may beeffective from those who arenot (i.e. you need to decide asquickly as possible whether adrug is going to work or notso that if it isn’t going to workyou can save time and moneyand move to another drug).Within a consortium ofresearch laboratories (somefunded by Cancer ResearchUK and the research councils)and medtech companies likeGSK, NPL is developing newinstrumental tools based onmass spectrometry imaging tomonitor how drugs penetratesinside cells. Such physicalbased techniques giveinvaluable information and

allow researchers to betterunderstand how cancer anddrugs work.

Which role plays metrologyin Industry 4.0?Jan-Theodoor Janssen:Industry 4.0 is stronglyrelated to digitalmanufacturing. The keywords are greater automation,better connectivity, betterdata processing with AI andless prototyping, usingadditive manufacturing, andbetter efficiency.

The role of metrology is key:greater automation needsmeasurement standards thatshould be available on theproduction site. For example,for its production, if acompany needs a voltmeter,this voltmeter has to comeback to NPL on a regular basisfor calibration purposes. Thisis a loss of time and money,impacting strongly onproduction efficiency. Alsosuch a calibration chaininvolves many steps at each ofwhich some accuracy is lostand so the voltmeter at thefactory site will have muchlower uncertainty than istechnically possible.

With the new SI, we areobserving a paradigm shiftwith the possibility of havinglocal primary standards. Ofcourse, several issues have tobe solved, above alltraceability but the changehas started. For mass

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measurements, MEMS(Micro Electro MechanicalSystems) devices are allowingthe development of miniaturebalances. This is of greatimportance for instance forpersonalized medicine.

What main technologicalinnovations/breakthroughshave had or will have animpact in a near future onmetrology?Jan-Theodoor Janssen:Technological innovations arealways a step ahead and we asmetrologists must follow theirdevelopment and adapt themeasurement toolsaccordingly. A good exampleis 5G. 5G will have a hugeimpact on industry, allowinghigh bandwidth connectivity;all sensors being connectedall the time. But 5G isoperating in the 20-60 GHzfrequency range wheremetrology is not so welldefined yet. We are workinghard to be prepared, from themetrological point of view,when 5G will be deployed.

Another example is additivemanufacturing and 3Dprinting which is developingfor some years now,everywhere in the industry.But many unknowns remainconcerning the 3D printedobjects: How do they age?How do they break? There areunknowns also in the processand the raw materials: how tomeasure the properties of thepowders like the grain sizeand purity of the materialfeedstock.

In the field of data science,with the development of IoT,more and more data is beingproduced, by various sources,from very accurate sensors tovery cheap sensors. One keyquestion is, what is theuncertainty of a measurement

performed by suchheterogeneous sources? Inother words, how do wecombine the data from verydifferent sources?Standardization is necessary.

New ways of processing dataalso implies new metrologicalchallenges. ArtificialIntelligence is revolutionizingthe way we use data. But howdo we ensure that the data isused correctly by AI?To answer these questions, wecannot work alone. This iswhy we, at NPL, launchedcollaborative activities likeorganizing a workshop ondata traceability. We are alsostarting with NIST, PTB andBIPM an Internationalprogram to address these kindof topics.

Last but not least, Quantumtechnology will soonrevolutionize many aspects ofindustry, with quantumcomputers, quantumcommunications, quantumclocks, quantum sensors and,of course, this will requirequantum metrology. In theUK, we have a QuantumTechnology Initiative, whichis linked to the EuropeanQuantum Flagship, underEuramet. The UK definedfour quantum hubs each ofthem focusing on one specificaspect. Each hub is led by auniversity but externalstakeholders are also present,for instance companies likee2v and MSQuarelasers. Therole of NPL will be, amongstother things, to test & validatequantum technologies andquantum systems.

What are the mainevolutions in the world ofmetrology that will have foryou the biggest impact inindustry?Jan-Theodoor Janssen: It all

depends on the time scale. Ona short timescale, the bigrevolution is data science. Ona long scale, the new SIshould have a big impact, withthis expected shift towardlocal primary standards. Andin between lies quantumtechnology. The quantumsupremacy over traditionalcomputers is expected thisyear in 2019. Consequencesshould be visible soon butquantum technologies willreveal their impact on theindustry on a longer timescale.

Do you see a specificity of aEuropean metrology? Whatis for you the place ofEurope in the world, fromthe metrological point ofview?Jan-Theodoor Janssen: Firstof all, it is important to recallthat the UK is an activemember of Euramet. TheEuropean labs have beenworking together in the frameof the European MetrologyProgramme for Innovationand Research (EMPIR).

Europe is leading the way inmany different technologicalareas. This is the case inparticular for smart grids andalso in the metrology for theenvironment where Europestands at the forefront. On thefront of fundamentalresearch, Europe has beenleading research on graphene2D materials, and quantumtechnologies. Many countriesoutside of Europe are quiteenvious of this effectivecollaboration.

Outside of Europe, wemaintain very activerelationships with NIST, inparticular in the field of datascience with a commonworkshop last year, and in thefield of quantum technologies

where NIST remains at thetop of research with threeNobel Prizes. We alsocollaborate with other labs, inCanada, China and India.China in particular isdeveloping very fast with lotsof investments, a new sitewith new labs, and primaryexperiments. India is alsogrowing but at a slower pace.

Are you aware oforganizations/groups inyour country but outside ofyour organization that areinvolved in the Metrology ofthe future or publications onthis topic?Jan-Theodoor Janssen: NPLis not the only actor in the UKon the metrological field.Other laboratories also play arole such as LGC in chemistryand biology, the BritishStandard Institute (BSI)mainly working onstandardization issues, theNational Engineering Lab(NEL) on flow technology forthe oil and gas industry. In theUK there are also Catapults,these are institutes inspiredby the German Fraunhoferinstitutes and active onindustry 4.0 topics, medicine,and space. NPL also has acommitment on the creationof spinoffs, like for instanceFootprintMedical which isdeveloping sensors fortemperature measurements toprevent foot ulcers in diabeticpatients.

For the coming challenges,the new European metrologynetworks will be veryimportant. Euramet is playinga key role bringing togetherNMI (National MetrologyInstitutes) who wish tointegrate more with industrialstakeholders.

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Interview with Sascha Eichstädt, Scientist and Digitalization Evangelist

at PTB*

Who are you? What is yourmission and the mission ofthe structure you areworking for?Sascha Eichstädt: PTB’smission is to ensureconfidence in any measureddata. This mission has beenalready over 130 years ago andhas been further developedover time. In the future,confidence in measured datawill be of vital importance ina digitalized world wheredata is processedautomatically.

I am a mathematician with aPhD in theoretical physics. Istarted my career at PTB inmeasurement analysis in2008. My initial scientificexpertise is in the field ofapplied mathematics, inparticular time-dependentmeasurements. For the past 2years, I have been leading theworking group coordinatingthe digitalization efforts atPTB. I work in aninterdisciplinary manner with

all the divisions in PTB: onmechanical instruments,measuring forces, torque,pressure, photometry formeasuring the performance ofphotovoltaic cells, in theelectrical domain, on flowmeasurements, etc.

Wherever a research group isworking on topics related todigitalization, the job of mygroup is to ensure that theirwork is consistent with that ofother groups. This relates tothe evolution of measurementsand measurands as well as theautomation of measurementsand other areas. In this way,my group coordinates andlinks up the developments ofthe many groups within PTBworking on metrology fordigitalization.

What role does metrologyplay in Industry 4.0?Sascha Eichstädt: In industry4.0, everything starts withdata: measuring data withsensors, analysing it withdedicated software andsharing data. Sensors are theconnection between the realworld and the virtual world;measurement data is thus thebackbone of this scheme, andmetrology providesconfidence in data. PTB iscoordinating a European R&Dproject “Communication andvalidation of smart data in IoTnetworks” on that matter.

An example of the work ofPTB in industry 4.0 is camera-

based dimensionalmeasurement. This requiresnew approaches totraceability and calibration inorder to ensure thatmeasurements are reliable.

Another hot topic in metrologyis sensors with a digital-onlyoutput that containspreprocessing. This requires,for instance, there is to be anexternal clock in order to havea traceable time stamping. PTBis coordinating a collaborativeresearch project on this and arelated topic, called“Metrology for the factory ofthe future” (EMPIR project)with NPL, LNE and otherpartners including industrystakeholders. One importantoutcome of the project is acalibration facility allowingdynamic calibration of digital-only sensors, with amathematical model of thedata flow that will bedemonstrated in industrialtestbeds in Germany andScotland. Overall, this projectwill provide a metrologicalframework for industrialsensor networks ranging fromthe individual sensors to dataanalysis for the whole network.

What main technologicalinnovations/breakthroughshave had or will have animpact on metrology in thenear future?Sascha Eichstädt: So manythings are going on right nowin the world of measurementand metrology. But if there is

one we should consider, it isthe impact of quantumtechnologies. We are enteringa quantum metrology era.Quantum physics lies at thefoundation of ourunderstanding of whatmeasurements are. And on themetrology front, we areshifting from the old SI to thenew SI, which is a quantum SI.

PTB has been very active inquantum metrology for manyyears, for example through anational competence centrewith the University ofHannover called QUEST, aswell as research projects andexcellence groups.

Another breakthrough isadditive manufacturing,which is having a strongimpact on metrology.Dimensional measurementsare key for additivemanufacturing, and requiretraditional dimensionalmetrology to be combined, forinstance, with imagingthrough computertomography.

What are the maindevelopments in the worldof metrology that you see ashaving the biggest impact onindustry?Sascha Eichstädt: In my view,digital services and innovative

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*Physikalisch-Technische Bundesans-talt, the National Metrology Instituteof Germany

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digital calibration will impactindustry hugely if appliedproperly. And when I sayinnovative calibrationservices, I also mean in theway they will becommunicated. I’m talkingabout digital certificates. Anexample of such a qualityinfrastructure is in place forlegal metrology in theEuropean Metrology Cloudinitiative, coordinated byPTB. These developmentsstarted last year and it can beexpected that over the next 3to 5 years, this kind ofinfrastructure will form thebasis for the legal metrologylandscape in Europe.Furthermore, I’d expect thatwe will see digital certificatesfor conformity assessment,

calibration and testing almosteverywhere. The questionwill be how fast customerswill adopt them. Metrologistsneed to work closely withcustomers to make sure thatthis happens.

Do you envisage a specificrole for a Europeanmetrology? How do you seeEurope’s place in the world,from the metrological pointof view?Sascha Eichstädt: In Europe,we have several top-rankingmetrological institutes: NPL,LNE, INRIM, PTB to namebut a few. They are well-established and are seen asleading experts worldwide.EURAMET offers a very goodand unique framework for the

European NMIs and DIs,forming an equal partner tothe American NIST, which isthe largest NMI in the world.The National Institute ofMetrology (NIM) in Chinaplays the same role as NISTeconomically, although theinstitute itself is smaller. Butthey are growing fast, due tostrong financial support fromthe government. PTB is alsoinvolved in severalcollaborations with theChinese NMI.

Are you aware oforganizations/groups inyour country but outsideyour organization that areinvolved in the Metrology ofthe future, or publicationson this topic?

Sascha Eichstädt: Most of theGerman sensormanufacturers are doingresearch, like HBM,Endress+Hauser, etc. Severallarge universities areperforming research inmetrology: Nuremberg,Erlangen, Braunschweig,Ilmenau. TU Ilmenau, forinstance, is working on thefirst non-NMI version of aPlanck balance, allowingprimary measurements of thekg to be done anywhere.However, there is noequivalent to CFM inGermany. A few activitiesundertaken by CFM in Franceare conducted by PTB inGermany.

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