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Page 1: Contamination of - mjchalaaltrust.co.za · Contamination of Ḥalāl & Ṭay-yib 01. Introduction Generally, one cannot separate "contamination" from "ḥarām" commodities, consumables
Page 2: Contamination of - mjchalaaltrust.co.za · Contamination of Ḥalāl & Ṭay-yib 01. Introduction Generally, one cannot separate "contamination" from "ḥarām" commodities, consumables

Contamination of Halāl (Ref.: HT COH 2017)

1

دع ما يريبك إلى ما ل يريبك

Leave (off) that which makes you doubt for that which does not make you doubt (An-Nasā-ī)

(2nd Revision: September 2018) (Copyright: MJCHT)

An Accolade

The International Trade Centre (ITC), which is based in Geneva, Switzerland, is the joint Agency of the World Trade Organization

(WTO) and United Nations (UN), has

listed the MJC Halaal Trust (MJCHT) as the first and oldest Ḥalāl Regulatory Body in the world.

In their 2015 “Ḥalāl Goes Global” publication, under the heading,

“The Evolution of Ḥalāl Regulations” the ITC states (p.32) :-

1945 - The Muslim Judicial Council Halaal Trust was formed in Cape

Town, to ensure that Islamic dietary laws are adhered to for the Muslims in South Africa.

We extend our gratitude, appreciation and respect to our honourable forefathers for their dedication and commitment towards ensuring that food consumed in South Africa is ḥalāl.

Page 3: Contamination of - mjchalaaltrust.co.za · Contamination of Ḥalāl & Ṭay-yib 01. Introduction Generally, one cannot separate "contamination" from "ḥarām" commodities, consumables

Contamination of Halāl (Ref.: HT COH 2017)

2

دع ما يريبك إلى ما ل يريبك

Leave (off) that which makes you doubt for that which does not make you doubt (An-Nasā-ī)

(2nd Revision: September 2018) (Copyright: MJCHT)

Table of Contents

Page

Table of Contents 3

Executive Summary 4

Contamination 4

Impurity 5

Harām – Non-Halāl 5

Harām (Non-Halāl) Products [Land Animals / Fowl] 6

Amphibious Animals 7

Rodents, Pest and Venomous Animals 7

Harām-Fed Animals 7

Blood 7

Halāl 7

Food from Plant Origin 8

Halāl Products [Land Animals/Fowl] 8

Aquatic / Marine Fish & Animals 8

Special Insects and Birds 8

Hazardous Substances 9

Conclusion 9

Page 4: Contamination of - mjchalaaltrust.co.za · Contamination of Ḥalāl & Ṭay-yib 01. Introduction Generally, one cannot separate "contamination" from "ḥarām" commodities, consumables

Contamination of Halāl (Ref.: HT COH 2017)

3

دع ما يريبك إلى ما ل يريبك

Leave (off) that which makes you doubt for that which does not make you doubt (An-Nasā-ī)

(2nd Revision: September 2018) (Copyright: MJCHT)

حمن حيم بسم هللا الر الر

In the Name of Allāh, the Beneficent, the Merciful

Contamination of Ḥalāl & Ṭay-yib

01. Introduction

Generally, one cannot separate "contamination" from "ḥarām" commodities, consumables or

liquids because the two concepts are synonymous and interrelated. In order to apply oneself

appropriately to these two concepts, one requires an in-depth understanding what is expected

of one to do or not to do congruently, and relevant to the two concepts. Therefore, defining

and describing the concepts of "contamination" and "ḥarām", and their opposite, "not

contaminated (pure)" and "ḥalāl", is essential for optimal working relations (ḥalāl control &

ḥalāl integrity) and being ḥalāl-compliant in whatever we do in life, especially in our

work/business and social environments. Both concepts: "contamination" and "ḥarām" are

inextricably relevant to ḥalāl and ṭay-yib and to the ḥalāl-certification requirements and

processes.

[See below for an exposition on: Appendix I for “Ḥarām”, Appendix II for “Ḥalāl” and

Appendix III for “Ṭay-yib”].

02. Contamination ث التلو - (al-talowwith) [فسد / مفاسد -al-ikhtilāṭ al - اإلختالط الم

mufsad]

2.1 Contamination refers to making a ḥalāl product, substance, commodity, ingredients or

place dirty, impure and unclean by soiling or bringing it into contact with impurities (najis)

and/or ḥarām products/liquids, like the pig and/or its derivatives, wine (alcoholic drinks),

blood, pus; or by adding a substance that is dangerous, harmful, toxic or hazardous; or

with that which carries disease or germs.

In addition to the above-mentioned pointer, contamination also refers to anything / any

type of contaminant that is spoilage or it causes spoilage to a ḥalāl / ṭay-yib product or

ingredient. That which is also incorporated into contamination is that which is denoted as

spoilage bacteria, enzymes, microbes, moulds, yeast and other foodborne illnesses.

Page 5: Contamination of - mjchalaaltrust.co.za · Contamination of Ḥalāl & Ṭay-yib 01. Introduction Generally, one cannot separate "contamination" from "ḥarām" commodities, consumables

Contamination of Halāl (Ref.: HT COH 2017)

4

دع ما يريبك إلى ما ل يريبك

Leave (off) that which makes you doubt for that which does not make you doubt (An-Nasā-ī)

(2nd Revision: September 2018) (Copyright: MJCHT)

2.2 Everything that is unambiguously defined as ḥarām and/or is categorised or falls under

the concept of ḥarām must be treated indisputably as a ‘high risk contaminant’ of ḥalāl

and ṭay-yib. This must be dealt with accordingly & procedurally within Sharī’ah parameters

to have the contamination removed/eliminated immediately, or else, it must be declared

as ḥarām – unfit for Muslim consumption.

2.3 To avoid contamination, it is required that the personnel/workers who work in the ḥalāl

certified section/facility should refrain from smoking, coughing, spitting on the floor,

touching/scratching in their noses (or hair) during food-preparation; and from handling

uncovered raw material to processing and handling; and food-cooking, without employing

protective measures, beforehand.

2.4 The prerequisite therefore is that appropriate protective clothing/attire must be worn by

all personnel or workers in the production, processing, food preparation and food-cooking

working areas.

2.5 The observation and application of sanitation and hygiene are absolutely essential for all

circumstances of the working areas/environment, which includes the washing and ablution

areas.

2.6 The personal health conditions of each staff member/worker are of cardinal importance

with reference to contamination. Through the poor personal health of staff

members/workers could be a food safety risk in which transference of microbiological,

chemical and physical hazards, or pathogens that are harmful enzymes, diseases, germs,

microbial viruses or other microorganisms, posing a huge risk of contamination to the ḥalāl

certified environment and food safety.

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Contamination of Halāl (Ref.: HT COH 2017)

5

دع ما يريبك إلى ما ل يريبك

Leave (off) that which makes you doubt for that which does not make you doubt (An-Nasā-ī)

(2nd Revision: September 2018) (Copyright: MJCHT)

3. Impurity - Najis [ سنج or نجاسة - anjās - أنجاس [

3.1 "Najis" denotes anything that is impure, unclean, defiled, polluted, soiled, toxic, dirty, filthy

or contaminated. Technically and religiously, “najis” is described as follows:-

i. Najāsa-al-‘ayn [ نجاسة العين] – means that the product or something is impure and unclean

in its essence, like in the case of pigs.

ii. Najis mughallazah [غلظة that which is considered severe/heavy najis, which are :[نج س م

dogs [ كلب / كالب - kalb/kilāb] and pigs [ خنزير / خنازير - khinzīr/khanāzīr), including any liquid and objects discharged from their orifices, descendants and derivatives.

iii. Najis mutawassiṭah [ طة توس ,that which is considered medium najis. Vomit, pus :[نج س م

blood, wine/liquor (khamr) or carrion; liquids and discharge from orifices, etc. fall under this category.

iv. Najis mukhaffafah [خففة that which is considered light najis. The urine of a baby boy :[نج س م

at the age of two years old and below who has not consumed any (solid) food, except his mother’s breast milk, falls under this category of najis.

3.2 In other words, according to Islāmic law (Sharī’ah), najis includes:-

i. Dogs and pigs, their descendants and/or any of their derivatives.

ii. Ḥalāl food that is contaminated with things that are non-ḥalāl.

iii. Ḥalāl food that comes into direct contact with things that are non-ḥalāl.

iv. Any liquid and objects discharged from the orifices of human beings or animals such as

urine, blood, vomit, pus, placenta, and excrement; sperm, ova and milk of pigs, dogs and monkeys except sperm, ova and milk of other “ḥalāl (permissible)” animals.

v. Carrion or ḥalāl animals or poultry that are not throat-slit according to Sharī’ah. This also

includes carnivore wild animals/birds and some non-permissible herbivore animals/birds, known as wild (game) animals / birds.

vi. Wine / alcoholic drinks (khamr) - and/or ḥalāl foods and drinks, which contain, or are

mixed with khamr also fall within the parameters/definition of high-risk contaminants.

vii. Another critically related matter here is the issue of mutanajjis (س تنج which essentially ,(م

refers to ḥalāl and ṭay-yib (pure) microbial or other products/ingredients that are contaminated by any form/type of najis.

The above-mentioned types of najāsah (impurity, filth, dirt, waste, etc.) need to be

cleansed or purified (or the impurity removed), if it is to be rendered fit for Muslim consumption / usage, otherwise it needs to be considered unfit for Muslim consumption.

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Contamination of Halāl (Ref.: HT COH 2017)

6

دع ما يريبك إلى ما ل يريبك

Leave (off) that which makes you doubt for that which does not make you doubt (An-Nasā-ī)

(2nd Revision: September 2018) (Copyright: MJCHT)

PS. Each of the above-mentioned najis categories has a particular cleansing-formula

for the purifying of the respective najis soiled area or facility. [Please refer to the attached Guideline Document of “Islāmic Cleansing” (Ref.: HT IC.G - 17115)].

There some common Arabic words that are used or associated with, on the same or similar level as that of "najis", inter alia: "ḥarām", viz.:- Dirt or filth أرجاس / رجس - rijs / arjās] Rubbish, garbage, dirt or filth [ قذر أقذار / - qadhar / aqdhār]. With the same meaning is: [qādhūrah / qādhūrāt - قاذ ورات / قاذ ورة] Malignant, repulsive, bad, evil and wicked [ ب ث / خبيث / خ - khabīth / khubth] Evil and unlawful as regards things, deeds, beliefs, persons, foods, etc. [الخبائث – the khabā-ith]

5. Conclusion 5.1 We hope and trust that useful insights and appreciation had been procured, after having

read this document about contamination. The essence of contamination is that it adulterates, pollutes and blemishes the very core of ḥalāl. Thus, a contaminated ḥalāl product or facility is automatically rendered as ḥarām, i.e. not conducive for Muslim consumption or usage.

5.2 In terms of ḥalāl-certification, it is not only a matter of ḥalāl animal/chicken throat-slitting

but the entire ḥalāl-chain needs to be supervised and monitored from start to end, thus ensuring that no contamination had occurred. In clause 2, above, we highlighted only four broad categories of contamination, but should we have unpacked and detailed each of these categories, this would have become a voluminous document.

5.3 Suffice to say and to repeat is that ḥalāl-certification doesn’t only entail ḥalāl throat-slitting,

but also incorporates hygiene, sanitation, efficiency, proficiency and precise-logistics.

5.4 Ḥalāl-Certification further prescribes constant vigilance about the possible contamination

by toxins, poisonous and hazardous substances, some of which are mentioned in this document. In such positively contaminated-detected commodities, the latter-mentioned is rendered as ‘not-ḥalāl’ – not fit for Muslim consumption – period!

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Contamination of Halāl (Ref.: HT COH 2017)

7

دع ما يريبك إلى ما ل يريبك

Leave (off) that which makes you doubt for that which does not make you doubt (An-Nasā-ī)

(2nd Revision: September 2018) (Copyright: MJCHT)

Appendix I

Ḥarām ]الحرام[: Not Lawful! Not Permissible

Introduction Like ḥalāl, ḥarām [حرام[ has many and diverse manifestations, by which each manifestation of ḥarām

must be dealt with uniquely, according to Sacred law. Almighty Allāh defines and tabulates the parameters, criteria and diverse indicators of ḥarām, as a barometer to detect and thereby avoid, abstain and reject whatever may fall within the scope of ḥarām. Whilst ḥarām is the direct opposite of ḥalāl, ḥarām is essentially described as when something is rendered non-ḥalāl, thus it is unlawful, not permissible and/or harmful, offensive or unfit for a Muslim to consume or be involved in it. Once we declare or confer anything (e.g. a product, a religious / cultural / economic practice,

behavioural conduct or characteristic, etc.) as ḥarām [حرام[, then the basis / criterion for such ḥarām-declaration must be based on or a direct reference/quote to a naṣṣ1 (i.e. a shar’ī textual injunction) and

nothing else. The naṣṣ reference is a direct, absolute and definitive [i.e. qat’ī ( قطعي pl. قطعيات)] statement, which leaves no opportunity for any interpretation, doubt or confusion, because any qurānic (or a sound ḥadīth) text (naṣṣ) cannot be altered and it applies to everyone, no matter where one resides, and it will remain as such for all times till the Day of Judgement.

“Nothing is ḥarām, except what is prohibited by a sound, definitive and explicit naṣṣ (qurānic verse or clear, authentic and explicit ḥadīth) from the Law-Giver.”

The above-mentioned criterion & principle of ḥarām applies exactly to the application of ḥalāl in our lives. However, when we survey and scrutinize the propensity and application of ḥalāl & ḥarām, we find that the Qurān & Sunnah (as Primary Sources of Sharī’ah) confine the scope of ḥarām in a clear, but limited way, whilst the scope for ḥalāl is also manifest, but it is vastly obtainable, accessible as a first option. Hence, the Islāmic principle of:-

باحة الصل في الشياء اإلThe basic asl (origin) refers to the permissibility of things (permissible-origin).

In other words, everything is to be presumed as ḥalāl (permissible), unless there is clear evidence indicating or justifying otherwise.

We are therefore stating that the origin (aṣl) of all eatables/consumables, food and drink that come from the earth that the foremost assumption is its permissibility (i.e. its ḥalāl-nature).

This is also based on, amongst many other qurānic verses of, what Almighty Allāh says:- يهو افٱلذ ل كممذ ل ق رضخ

يعاٱلأ ج He it is Who created for you all that which is on earth (Al-Baqarah: Q2: 29).

Whatever comes from Almighty Allāh is lawful, good and pure (ḥalāl & ṭay-yib). We often tend to

focus on and search for ḥarām (the bad & impure) in whatever we do and consume and even become involved in it, instead of accentuating the ḥalāl & ṭay-yib, promote it and become wholesomely involved in it. Such vigilance of ḥalāl & ṭay-yib will prompt us to other vital indicators and requirements of ḥalāl control and ḥalāl-compliance and any other factors that may contaminate or blemish the essence of ḥalāl & ṭay-yib.

1 Naṣṣ [ نص -pl. nuṣūṣ (نصوص)]- A clear Shar’ī textual (qurānic) injunction / an explicit textual ruling and/or a clear, authentic

ḥadīth.

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Contamination of Halāl (Ref.: HT COH 2017)

8

دع ما يريبك إلى ما ل يريبك

Leave (off) that which makes you doubt for that which does not make you doubt (An-Nasā-ī)

(2nd Revision: September 2018) (Copyright: MJCHT)

What is Ḥarām?

Definition

Ḥarām (حرام) is an Arabic word, which is a comprehensive religious concept, literally meaning

“unlawful, prohibited, forbidden, impermissible or unclean” that encapsulates and governs the entire lives and lifestyles of Muslims from before birth till death and into the grave; and whatever Muslims consume, duly derived from the earth and on the farm, to the fork, to the stomach, including via ḥarām consumables and ḥarām procedures, production, processing, distribution and/or manufacturing mechanisms or facilities/industries. The commission of ḥarām behoves punishment, rebuke and/or corrective action, because it is an act or deed that Almighty Allāh & His Prophet Muḥammad (Pbuh) have prohibited, forbidden and/or made unlawful.

Ḥarām also signifies any object, action, commodity or liquid that is impermissible (unlawful), wrongful social, religious, cultural and political behaviours (conduct) and/or economic, trade & commercial transactions, according to Islāmic law, and – by extension - it is harmful, offensive, contaminated, toxic or hazardous; or infected with disease, germs or viruses to the body, or to a person's intellect to use or engage in, according to Islāmic law, thus unfit for Muslim consumption; and improper for a Muslim’s involvement in it.

“Committing ḥarām is punishable and omitting ḥarām is rewarded.” (Kamali, 2013).

Other Definitions / Descriptions for Ḥarām Ḥarām [حرام[ is the direct opposite of ḥalāl [حلل]; whereas:-

• Ḥarām literally means: unlawful, forbidden, prohibited and not permissible.

• The concept ḥarām emphatically implies that whatever a Muslim does, eats or drinks, or is involved in that is not legally permitted, hence it is unlawful, prohibited or forbidden.

• Such a ḥarām-declared commodity, consumable or liquid is therefore considered what Almighty Allāh has declared as ḥarām; or it is contaminated, toxic or hazardous; or infected with disease, germs or viruses, thus unfit for Muslim consumption.

• Ḥarām has other impelling connotations of being offensive, impure, harmful, and detrimental to one’s physical body, intellect, health or hygiene.

• Ḥarām refers to anything that is bad and evil, especially that of illicit sexual behaviour and immoral lifestyles (fawāḥish).

• Ḥarām denotes an offence amongst the many other socio-cultural, marital and religious misdemeanours and/or other malpractices that would invoke some form of punitive measure for committing the ḥarām or the offence.

• Ḥarām refers to when something is rendered non-ḥalāl, thus it is unlawful, not permissible and/or

harmful and offensive for a Muslim to consume or to be involved in it.

• Ḥarām implies to do and become involved in things, commodities or actions that are designated as forbidden, impure, harmful, offensive or unlawful, and/or that are not classified as ḥalāl under Islāmic law. For example, the consumption of alcoholic drinks & beverages and/or taking & dealing in drugs and narcotics, or to be involved in pornography or other illicit behaviours.

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Contamination of Halāl (Ref.: HT COH 2017)

9

دع ما يريبك إلى ما ل يريبك

Leave (off) that which makes you doubt for that which does not make you doubt (An-Nasā-ī)

(2nd Revision: September 2018) (Copyright: MJCHT)

• Ḥarām refers to things, commodities or actions that are denoted as prohibited, forbidden, impure,

harmful, offensive or unlawful, and/or that which are not classified as permissible, good, pure and suitable to consume, use or to be involved in, under Islāmic law (i.e. Sharī’ah).

• Ḥarām also incorporates, amongst other concepts, behavioural characteristics and/or activities, like: usury/interest (ribā), bribery (rishwa), fraud (taḥāyul), embezzlement (ikhtilās), gambling, lottery or bingo (maysir), hoarding and monopoly (ḥukrah / iḥtikār), theft or larceny (sariqah), robbery (luṣūṣiyah), or highway robbery (e.g. hijacking) [ḥirābah] and plundering (salb), amongst many other socio-economic, financial or commercial misdemeanours, or fraudulent and corrupt behaviour / relationships / dealings, including any other social ills, vice or malpractice.

Measuring Tools for Ḥarām After we have now fully comprehended some definitions and meanings of ḥarām, especially that ḥarām does not only entail food & drink, but it incorporates our entire lives and lifestyles, we need further introspective insight, as to how to deal constructively and judiciously with ḥarām. In essence, ḥarām encompasses the broadest spectrum of that which falls outside, contradicts or contravenes the scope of ḥalāl. This is based on what the Prophet Muḥammad (Pbuh) said:-

إن الحالل بي ن ، وإن الحرام بي ن That which is lawful (ḥalāl) is manifest and that which is unlawful (ḥarām) is manifest [Bukhārī and Muslim].

The above-mentioned ḥadīth is an emphatic Prophetic statement that “ḥarām” is manifest, duly tabulated by Almighty Allāh and His Prophet Muḥammad (Pbuh), as indicated by other aḥadīth.

Unfortunately, we tend to purposefully ignore the apparent of what ḥalāl is, and the apparent of what ḥarām is, but would rather have a fixated focus on the doubtful matters (grey areas), as they are being presented in life. In this way, we uncompromisingly and self-righteously look for ḥarām in something that is ḥalāl, and the opposite thereof, justifying ḥalāl in ḥarām, instead of focusing primarily on the essence of ḥalāl & ṭay-yib, whilst being vigilant about the ḥarām. Whosoever behaves or acts in the aforementioned conduct of looking for or justifying ḥalāl in ḥarām and vice-versa, has pointedly disregarded the Prophetic Guidance when he (Pbuh) said:-

م أشياء فال وها ، وحر د ودا فال تعتد تنتهك وها ، وسكت عن أشياء رحمة إن هللا تعالى فرض فرائض فال ت ضي ع وها ، وحد ح فال تبحث وا عنها. ، لك م غير نسيان

Indeed, Allāh the Almighty has prescribed the religious obligations (laws, rules and duties), so do not neglect them. He has set the boundaries, so do not overstep them. He has prohibited certain/some things, so do not violate them.

About some things He was silent – out of compassion for you – not because of forgetfulness, so seek not after them [i.e. do not delve too deeply and unnecessarily into the things (i.e. the grey areas) Allāh is/was silent on, but abide by the religious obligations (farā-iḍ), stick to the boundaries (ḥudūd), and stay clear and abstain from the unlawful (ḥarām) things] (Dāraquṭnī and others).

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Contamination of Halāl (Ref.: HT COH 2017)

10

دع ما يريبك إلى ما ل يريبك

Leave (off) that which makes you doubt for that which does not make you doubt (An-Nasā-ī)

(2nd Revision: September 2018) (Copyright: MJCHT)

Ḥarām (Non-Ḥalāl) Products [Land Animals / Fowl]

The Qurān mentions, at least, ten (10) prohibited categories in one verse (Al Mā-idah: Q5: 3):-

1. Prohibited Animal Categories

When a slaughterer (i.e. a throat-slitter) refers / associates any Islāmic throat-slitting of a bird or an animal to the following categories, then the respective throat-slitting is a ḥarām (rejected) throat-slitting:-

وما أهل لغير هللا به a) A sacrifice for an object or person other than Almighty God, such as ancestors, idols, or spirits,

or saints (or any other holy person or object, duly revered by oneself or other people).

b) Cognizance should be heeded that the flesh of the pig (لحم الخنزير) and any of its derivatives, including its milk, skin or hair, are ḥarām to be consumed by Muslims.

c) Flowing / Coagulated Congealed Blood (الدم), the drinking and any by-products thereof are ḥarām

– not fit for Muslim consumption.

d) Any ḥalāl (permissible) animal which died naturally (الميتة), without being throat-slit before its death,

its flesh/meat is not ḥalāl for Muslims to consume.

e) Further cognizance should be taken that the flesh/meat of a permissible animal (to be eaten by

Muslims) will be ḥarām to eat should the animal be declared dead, or it died, or it was killed

because of the following reasons:-

خنقا بحبل ونحوه : التي ماتت المنخنقةf) Al-munkhaniqah: that which died or was killed through strangling or suffocation.

: التي ماتت بضرب بعصا أو حجر ، أو نحوهماالموقوذةg) Al-mauqūdhah: that which died or was killed by a violent blow.

ية: التي ماتت بالسقوط من مكان عال المترد h) Al-mutarad-diyah: that which died or was killed by a headlong fall.

تي ماتت بالنطح من غيرها من الدواب النطيحة : ال

i) Al-naṭīḥah: that which died or was killed by goring of horns by another (fellow) animal.

لها : التي ماتت بافتراس حيوان ما أكل السبع j) Mā akala al-sabu‘u: that which died, or was killed, or partly eaten by a carnivore animal.

ا ذكر )أعله( فذكيتموه ، فإنه يحل ويؤكل إل ما ذكيتم: إل ما أدركتموه حي ا ممUnless you are able slaughtering (dhabḥ) it before its death [in each of the above-mentioned five incidents of “dead animals”]. If so, then it is ḥalāl and its flesh/meat is permissible for Muslim consumption.

: أي الحجار التي كانوا يذب حون عليها للهتهم وما ذبح على النصبk) Mā dhubiḥa ‘alā al-nusub: that which died or was killed/slaughtered on stone alters (nuṣub)2.

2 Please refer to the MJCHT Guideline Booklet on: Some Pertinent Terminologies for the definition of Nuṣub.

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Contamination of Halāl (Ref.: HT COH 2017)

11

دع ما يريبك إلى ما ل يريبك

Leave (off) that which makes you doubt for that which does not make you doubt (An-Nasā-ī)

(2nd Revision: September 2018) (Copyright: MJCHT)

5.1.3 The above-mentioned ten prohibited animal categories are summarized as follows:-

❖ When a Muslim happens to find any of the aforementioned last-five categories of “dead animals”, whilst these animals are alive and still breathing (has ḥayāt-al-mustaqirrah), and before dying, the Muslim may throat-slit (tadhkiyah) the animal and it will be rendered as ḥalāl.

❖ Any ḥalāl (herbivore) wild animal which has been hunted and eaten partly by a (carnivore) wild

animal is also ḥarām to be consumed by Muslims, unless a Muslim can throat-slit (i.e. dhabḥ) it according to Sharī’ah before it dies. This is based on what Almighty Allāh says: "Unless you are able to throat-slit the animal (before its death)" [Al Mā-idah: Q5: 3].

Untamed and wild animals or birds of prey, like wild beasts and animals [سب ع / سباع - al-sabu’u)] with

canine teeth [ذ و ناب / أنياب / ن ي وب - dhū nābin)] or birds with talons [ذ و مخلب / مخالب - dhū mikhlabin)]

are ḥarām to eat, as well as their offspring. Examples are:-

- Lions, cheetahs and leopards; - Cats or dogs, monkeys (canine); and bats or rats also fall in this category - Birds with talon such as vultures, eagles and falcons; - Horses, donkeys and mules (having hoofs) are also considered here, but there are circumstantial

exceptions for their ḥalāl consumption, under specific conditions.

In essence, any ḥalāl edible (sacrificial) animal or fowl that was not killed or throat-slit, according to ḥalāl throat-slitting standards must be rendered as ḥarām – not fit for Muslim consumption.

Amphibious Animals "Amphibious animals" are animals that live or survive in water and on land, like crocodiles, frogs and seals, etc. All such animals are ḥarām to eat.

Rodents, Pest and Venomous Animals Animals that fall in the above-mentioned categories, such as rats, mice, scorpions and snakes are ḥarām to eat.

Pests, like insects, creepy-crawlies, snails, cockroaches, which include parasites, like fleas, lice and bedbugs, etc. are ḥarām to eat.

Ḥarām-Fed Animals The rule here is that should a permissible (ḥalāl-to-eat) animal, like the cow or sheep, be intentionally and continually fed with ḥarām, such an animal is not fit for ḥalāl consumption.

Blood Sharī'ah always puts a special emphasis on blood and its by-products of animal or animal origin. Accordingly, as a general rule: all types of flowing/congealed blood and its by-products are non-ḥalāl (ḥarām). For life-saving purposes, exceptions are made, like donating blood to save lives.

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دع ما يريبك إلى ما ل يريبك

Leave (off) that which makes you doubt for that which does not make you doubt (An-Nasā-ī)

(2nd Revision: September 2018) (Copyright: MJCHT)

Special Insects / Birds The following insects and birds are not permitted (ḥarām) to kill wilfully, based on the Prophetic Saying (Pbuh):

On the authority of Ibn Abbās (r.a) reported that the Prophet Muḥammad (Pbuh) prohibited the killing of at least four creatures: the ant (al-namlah), the bee (al-naḥlah), the hoopoe (al-hud hud) and the (surad3).4

Hazardous Substances

The following dangerous and hazardous things are also considered to fall under contamination:

➢ Biohazards ➢ Radioactive material ➢ Flammable substances ➢ Oxidizing substances ➢ Toxic substances ➢ Explosive substances ➢ Corrosives

3 Al-ṣurad is a bird with a big head, and has a white belly (front) and green back. It hunts and eats small birds. 4 Cited in Muwatta, Abū Dāwūd and Ibn Mājah (ḥadīth no. 3223 + 3224. p. 544).

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دع ما يريبك إلى ما ل يريبك

Leave (off) that which makes you doubt for that which does not make you doubt (An-Nasā-ī)

(2nd Revision: September 2018) (Copyright: MJCHT)

Appendix II

Ḥalāl ]الحلل[ - Lawful! Permissible!

Introduction Generally, the concepts of “ḥalāl” and “living ḥalāl” are indispensable edicts for Muslims. However, once one accepts that there is only one Creator who created all creations and He is in control of them, one will be able to comprehend that this very same Creator is the Originator of ḥalāl and all its dimensions not only for Muslims, but also for the entire humanity. For indeed, Almighty Allāh says in the Holy Qurān:-

لق كل شيء فٱعبدوه وهو على كل شيء وكيل ه إل هو خ ربكم ل إل لكم ٱلل

ذThat is Allāh, your Lord, there is no god but He; the Creator of all things, therefore serve Him, and He has charge of all things (Al-An’ām: Q6: 102).

ا تعدون يدب ر ٱلمر من ٱلسماء إلى ٱلرض ثم يعرج إليه في يوم كان مقدارهۥ ألف سنة م مHe regulates the affair from the heaven to the earth; then shall it ascend to Him in a day the measure of which is a thousand years of what you count (As-Sajdah: Q32: 5). Fundamentally, for Muslims, “ḥalāl” is the alpha and omega; the fundamental ethos-framework of life and lifestyle for each and every Muslim. A Muslim simply cannot live an optimally beneficial life without having a conscientious, comprehensive understanding of ḥalāl and implementing it. Simultaneously, a Muslim cannot violate or transgress against the Standards, Principles, Values, Ethics and Etiquette of ḥalāl. Thus, observing the pretext, context and the essence of “ḥalāl” is the personal and specific responsibility, duty and obligation of each Muslim. In the same vein, we need to take cognizance of the fact that Almighty Allāh has power over everything and to Him belongs whatever is in the Heavens and on/in the Earth.

ت وما في ٱلرض وإن تبدوا ما في أنفسكم أو تخفوه يحاسبكم به ٱلل و ما في ٱلسم لل ب من يشاء وٱلل فيغفر لمن يشاء ويعذ يء قدير على كل ش

Whatever is in the heavens and whatever is in/on the earth belongs to Allāh; and whether you manifest what is in your minds or hide it, Allāh will call you to account according to it; then He will forgive whom He pleases and chastise whom He pleases, and Allāh has power over all things (Al-Baqarah: Q2: 284). Almighty Allāh holds each and every Muslim accountable, according to how the Muslim implements and applies “ḥalāl” in her/his life and lifestyle. Thus, Almighty Allāh shall judge each female or male Muslim (as well as the rest of humanity) in the Hereafter on the qualitative & quantitative value-implementation or application of the entire spectrums of ḥalāl in one’s earthly life. This, Almighty Allāh clearly directs us on in, at least, two verses in the Holy Qurān, viz.:-

كل نفس بما كسبت رهينة Every soul is held in pledge for what it earns (Al-Muddath-thir: Q74: 38).

ا وهو رب كل شيء ول تكسب كل نفس إل أبغي رب رجعكم قل أغير ٱلل عليها ول تزر وازرة وزر أخرى ثم إلى رب كم م فينب ئكم بما كنتم فيه تختلفون

Say: What! Shall I seek a Lord other than Allāh, while He is the Lord of all things? And no soul earns (evil or sin), except only against itself. And no bearer of burden shall bear the burden of another; then to your Lord is your return, so He will inform you of that in which you differed (Al-An’ām: Q6: 164). To accentuate the point of this book, in this chapter we focus on and define the religious concept: 'ḥalāl'; what it entails and what it means or its benefits for Muslims. In the same vein, the information/contents serve as clarification for non-Muslims, as well.

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دع ما يريبك إلى ما ل يريبك

Leave (off) that which makes you doubt for that which does not make you doubt (An-Nasā-ī)

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Non-Muslims will therefore understand that ḥalāl is not prescribed for Muslims, per se, but the Creator of and Provider for all creations (Almighty Allāh) imposed ḥalāl on the entire humanity. Thereby, the understanding, implementation and practicing of ḥalāl do not preclude any non-Muslim from observing it. In essence, such understanding of ḥalāl will enhance sensitivity and respect for the comprehensive nature of ḥalāl because it is divinely tabulated, and not according to people’s personalized dogmas, dictates, whims and fancies. “Ḥalāl” is not a man-made concoction, but most definitely a comprehensive Divine Instruction and practice for humanity to abide by it, and live it, accordingly. Therefore, no individual person may render what is divinely tabulated as ḥalāl, ḥarām and vice-versa, what is divinely tabulated as ḥarām, ḥalāl. This condition or directive needs to be understood, as follows.

Defining the Religious Concept: Ḥalāl (حلل) What is Ḥalāl (حالل)?

Definition

Ḥalāl ( حلل) is an Arabic word, which is a comprehensive religious concept, literally meaning “lawful

or permissible” that encapsulates and governs the entire lives and lifestyles of Muslims5 from before birth till death and into the grave; and whatever Muslims consume, which is duly derived from the earth and on the farm, to the fork, to the stomach, including via ḥalāl consumables and ḥalāl procedures, production, processing, distribution and/or manufacturing mechanisms, facilities/industries.

Ḥalāl encompasses an act, object or a behaviour that once the last-mentioned is implemented or it is compliant with the ḥalāl criteria. The commission of ḥalāl behoves reward & praise and no punishment / rebuke, because it is what pleases Almighty Allāh.

Ḥalāl is, furthermore, inextricably incorporated into and associated with the religious concept of

ṭay-yib (طي ب), which means good, pure, wholesome and nutritious.6

By broadening the above-mentioned definition, "ḥalāl" refers to any object, action or commodity that is permissible (lawful), good, pure and wholesome (ṭay-yib) and it causes no harm, injury, hazard, toxicity or intoxication, neither to the body nor to a person's intellect to use or engage in, according to Islāmic law (i.e. Sharī'ah). Literally, ḥalāl refers to food and beverages that are permissible for the use and consumption by Muslims, but it also encapsulates a Muslim’s entire adopted, dignified lifestyle other than food and beverages from before birth till after death and into the grave.7 In another description of ḥalāl, it is described as follows:-

An item of food or drink is ḥalāl if:-

• It does not harm or interfere with the normal functioning of the body and mind.

• It is free of najis (filth) and of products derived from carrion or from dead animals that have not been properly slaughtered or hunted.

• It is free of products derived from pigs or dogs or other ḥarām (prohibited) animals.8

5 Please refer to MJCHT Guideline Booklet on ‘Common, Pertinent Terminologies’ for the Definition of: ḥalāl lifestyle. 6 Ṭay-yib – See below in the next Chapter. 7 Adapted from: International Trade Centre 2015 – “Halāl Goes Global” Chapter One, p. 2. 8 Consumers Association of Penang. 2006. Halāl and Harām, Penang: Malaysia.

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دع ما يريبك إلى ما ل يريبك

Leave (off) that which makes you doubt for that which does not make you doubt (An-Nasā-ī)

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Other Definitions / Descriptions for Ḥalāl • Ḥalāl (حلل) is an Arabic word, which literally means: "lawful or permissible" and it is the opposite

of ḥarām (حرام), which is also an Arabic word that literally means: "unlawful / impermissible or

unclean".

• Ḥalāl has a religious connotation and interpretation and therefore ḥalāl cannot be addressed, used or applied, except within the Islāmic religious context.

• Ḥalāl emphatically underlines whatever a Muslim does or consumes (eats or drinks), or is involved in is approved, permitted, lawful and legally correct.

• The religious concept ḥalāl and living ḥalāl are indispensable edicts for Muslims.

• We need to dispel the misconception and short-sightedness that ḥalāl only entails food and drinks (e.g. meat, chicken, game meat, seafood, dairy products, fruit and vegetables) and nothing else.

• The concept "ḥalāl" is also incorporated into the five legal statutes (al-aḥkām al-khamsah). The aḥkām al-khamsah are: mandatory (farḍ), permissible (mubāḥ), recommended (mustaḥab), disliked (makrūh) and not allowed/unlawful (ḥarām).

• Ḥalāl signifies all foods, drinks, edibles, nutrients, fats, oils and consumables, including spices,

flavouring, colouring, stabilizers, preservatives, enzymes and beverages and/or other ingredients that are permitted under Sharī’ah for Muslims to consume, which subscribe to the following conditions:-

➢ The food does not contain any parts or products of animals that are non-ḥalāl, according to

Sharī’ah, or any parts or products of animals which are not slaughtered according to Sharī’ah.

➢ The food does not contain any impurities (najis), according to Sharī’ah;

➢ The food is safe for consumption, non-poisonous, non-intoxicating, non-toxic, or non-hazardous to health.

➢ The food is not prepared, processed, or manufactured using equipment or tools that are contaminated with najis, according to Sharī’ah.

• Ḥalāl is the alpha and omega; the fundamental ethos-framework of life and lifestyle for each and

every Muslim.

• A Muslim simply cannot do without ḥalāl and - on the other hand – a Muslim cannot violate or transgress against the Standards, Principles, Values, Ethics and Etiquette of ḥalāl. Thus, observing the pretext, context and the essence of ḥalāl is the personal and specific responsibility of each Muslim.

• The ḥalāl-stipulated principles, values and requirements for Ḥalāl-Lifestyles are also incorporated under the concept / religious lifestyle of ḥalāl.

• The ḥalāl-approved commodity, consumable or liquid is uncompromisingly considered hygienically-clean and healthy; not contaminated, not adulterated and it is wholesome, thus fit for Muslim consumption.

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دع ما يريبك إلى ما ل يريبك

Leave (off) that which makes you doubt for that which does not make you doubt (An-Nasā-ī)

(2nd Revision: September 2018) (Copyright: MJCHT)

The Legality of Ḥalāl – A Divine Decree • Almighty Allāh sets the standards and stipulates the definition and parameters of ḥalāl in the

following, amongst many other, qurānic verses:-

ن ت ٱلشيط ا ول تتبعوا خطو ل طي با في ٱلرض حل أيها ٱلناس كلوا مم بين ي إنهۥ لكم عدو م

O humanity! Eat of that which is lawful (ḥalāl) and good & pure (ṭay-yib) in/on the earth, and follow not the footsteps of the devil (Satan). Verily, he is to you an avowed enemy [Al-Baqarah: Q2: 168].

• Enforcing the above guideline, Almighty Allāh accentuates:-

وٱتقوا ٱللكم عنه فٱنتهوا سول فخذوه وما نهى كم ٱلر وما ءاتى

And whatsoever the Messenger [Muḥammad (Pbuh)] gives you, take it, and whatsoever he forbids you, abstain (from it), and have taqwā9 in Allāh [Al-Ḥashr: Q59: 7]. The Prophet Muḥammad (Pbuh) further entrenches fundamental parameters in approaching and dealing with ḥalāl and ḥarām, as follows:-

ما أ م ه ن كثيرمن الناس. فمن اتقى الشب هات فقد استبرأ إن الحالل بي ن ، وإن الحرام بي ن ، وبينه شتبهات ال يعلم ور م لدينه وعرضه. ومن وقع في الشب هات وقع في الحرام.

That which is lawful (ḥalāl) is manifest and that which is unlawful (ḥarām) is manifest; between the two of them are doubtful matters (shubuhāt) about which many people do not know. Thus, he who avoids doubtful matters, frees and protects himself regarding his religion (dīn) and his honour. But he who falls into (and subscribes to) the doubtful matters, falls into the unlawful (i.e. the ḥarām) [Bukhārī and Muslim].

• By promoting and valuing tolerance in a multi-cultural and multi-faith society, it is a humble appeal

that non-Muslims respect the requirements for ḥalāl that must be duly observed by Muslims and to deal with Muslims within an Islāmic Ethos Framework. It is, furthermore, required from Muslims to respect the pristine cultures, norms and values of their fellow non-Muslim brethren. The underlying sentiments expressed in the aforementioned pointers are essentially based on the following qurānic verse:-

ي ن ٱلذ ذٱنلذبذٱلرذسول ي تذبعون م يٱلأ دون هٱلذ فۥي همأ توباعند كأ ىةم ر جنيلو ٱتلذوأ

ٱلأ مرهمبأروفي أ عأ أم نٱل ع ىهمأ ي نأه رو أمنك ٱل

ل هم يحل تو يب ل يأهمٱلطذ رمع يح و ٱلأ ب ئث و إصأ همأ نأهمأ عع ي ض ل و ل غأف ٱلذتٱلأ ل يأهمأ ع ن تأ ين ك نوابهٱلذ وهۦء ام ن ص روهو زذ و ع

و ب عوا ي ٱنلور ٱتذ هٱلذ ع م نزل همۥ أ ئك ول

لحون أ أمفأ ٱل

Those who follow the Messenger, the Prophet (Pbuh) who can neither read nor write (i.e. the ummi), whom they find being described in the Torāh and the Injīl (which are) with them. He [Muḥammad (Pbuh)] allows/makes lawful for them the ṭay-yibāt10 and prohibits them the khabā-ith11 as unlawful; he releases them from their heavy burdens and from the fetters (shackles) that were upon them. Then those who believe in him, and honour him, and help him, and follow the light which has been sent down with him: they are the successful ones (Al-A’rāf: Q7: 157).

Remember:

“Simplicity is the ultimate sophistication.”

9 Please refer to MJCHT Guideline Booklet on ‘Common, Pertinent Terminologies’ for the Definition of taqwā. 10 Please refer to MJCHT Guideline Booklet on ‘Common, Pertinent Terminologies’ for the Definition of: ṭay-yibāt. 11 Please refer to MJCHT Guideline Booklet on ‘Common, Pertinent Terminologies’ for the Definition of: khabā-ith.

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دع ما يريبك إلى ما ل يريبك

Leave (off) that which makes you doubt for that which does not make you doubt (An-Nasā-ī)

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Understanding the Concept "Halāl"

At the outset, we need to dispel the misconception and short-sightedness that “ḥalāl” only entails food and drinks (e.g. meat, chicken, seafood, dairy products, fruit & vegetables and water & beverages) and nothing else. Ḥalāl actually encapsulates and governs our entire lives and lifestyles from before birth till death and into the grave; and whatever we consume, duly derived from the earth and on the farm to the fork, to the stomach, including other consumables, food production and manufacturing.12 Almighty Allāh sets the standards and stipulates the definition of ḥalāl in, at least, one qurānic verse, as quoted above:-

ل هم يحل تٱو يب ل يأهملطذ رمع يح و لأ ب ئث ٱو إصأ همأ نأهمأ عع ي ض ل ٱو ل غألذتٱلأ ل يأهمأ ع ن تأ ك

He [Muḥammad (Pbuh)] allows/makes lawful for them the ṭay-yibāt and prohibits them the khabā-ith as unlawful; he releases them from their heavy burdens and from the fetters (shackles) that were upon them (Al-A’rāf: Q7: 157). In the above qurānic verse, reference is made to the ṭay-yibāt, which is the plural form of ṭay-yib, literally meaning: pure belief in Almighty Allāh, as well as good, wholesome, nutritious, safe and it has good quality, implying food safety, as being lawful, and the opposite thereof, the khabā-ith, which the plural form of khubth, literally meaning: false belief, as well as the bad, evil, filth, impure, unhygienic and unsavoury things with regard to food, deeds, beliefs and persons, as being unlawful. Both concepts of ṭay-yibāt and khabā-ith are expanded on hereunder, in different Chapters. However, whatever is identified or classified under ṭay-yibāt is ḥalāl and whatever falls within the ambits of khabā-ith is ḥarām. Clearly, Almighty Allāh commissioned the Prophet Muḥammad (Pbuh) to command, instruct and encourage not only the Muslims, but also the Ahlal Kitāb (the Jews and Christians) to follow ḥalāl & ṭay-yib lifestyle practices in the manner of belief and every other aspect and engagement of their daily lives. In the same vein, they were prohibited of involvement in any khubth, whether it be their belief systems or any other aspect and interest of their daily lives, because such involvement is unlawful (ḥarām). Moreover, the Prophet Muḥammad (Pbuh) also came with leniency, forbearance and wisdom, thus releasing whatever burdens and difficulties they might have brought upon themselves and whatever Almighty Allāh had made ḥarām of the ḥalāl for them (i.e. the shackles/fetters placed upon them by Almighty Allāh), due to their own misdemeanours against Almighty Allāh. The above-mentioned verse (Q7: 157) is but one of the qurānic verses demonstrating the comprehensive application of ḥalāl and ḥarām not only in a Muslim context, but also in multi-religious, multi-cultural and the multi-dimensional facets of life and lifestyle, which must be compliant with what Almighty Allāh commanded and encouraged and/or forbade all people – i.e. the entire humanity. For example, within the wisdom of the Prophet Muḥammad (Pbuh), when he (Pbuh) appointed Mu’ādh and Abū Mūsā al-Ash’arī (r.a) as Commanders to Yemen, he (Pbuh) advised them the following:-

را ، وتطاوعا ول تختلفا را ول تعس را ول تنف را ، ويس بش Bring about glad tidings and do not drive people away; make things easy and do not make them difficult; obey each other and do not differ amongst yourselves.

12 Halāl lifestyle includes nutritious and wholesome food, food security and safety; agriculture; ḥalāl earnings and spending

[e.g. kasb, rizq, nafaqah, ṣadaqah and zakāh]; business relations, manufacturing & industry,

pharmaceuticals and cosmetics; observance of basic employment equity, inheritance, bequests and gifts;

- - - a person's entire life-spectrum.

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Furthermore, the Prophet Muḥammad (Pbuh) provided us with the essence of ḥalāl & ḥarām:-

رسل ؤمنين بما أمر به الم تعالى: هللا ين. فقال إن هللا تعالى طي ب ال يقبل إال طي با ، وإن هللا أمر الم Almighty Allāh is good and accepts only that which is good. Allāh has commanded the Believers to do that which He commanded the Messengers (a.s), and Almighty Allāh said:-

ا ه ي أ لرسلٱي تٱكوامن يب ٱو لطذ لوا م ليمعأ ع لون م ات عأ بم لحاإن تعالى: هللا قالو ٥١ص

O (you) Messengers! Eat of the ṭay-yibāt [all kinds of ḥalāl (legal) foods which Allāh has made legal (meat of slaughtered eatable animals, milk products, fats, vegetables, fruits], and do righteous deeds. Verily! I am well-acquainted with what you do (Al-Mu’minūn: Q23: 51).

And Almighty Allāh said:-

ا ه ي أ ين ٱي و لذ كمأ ز قأن ار تم يب نواكوامنط ٱء ام كروا شأ بدون إيذاهت عأ إنكنتمأ ١٧٢للذ

O you who believe (in the Oneness of Allāh)! Eat of the good & lawful things (ṭay-yibāt) that We have provided you with, and be grateful to Allāh, if it is indeed He whom you serve (i.e. worship) [Al-Baqarah: Q2: 172].

! وم ! يا رب د يديه إلى السماء: يا رب ل ي طيل السفر ، أشعث أغبر ، يم ج ه حرام ، ومشرب ه حرام ، ث م ذكر الر طعم وملبس ه حرام ، وغ دي بالحرام: فأنى ي ستجاب له !

Then he (Pbuh) mentioned [the case of] a man who, having journeyed far, is dishevelled and dusty and who spread out his hands to the sky [saying]: O Lord! O Lord! While his food is unlawful (ḥarām), his drink is ḥarām, his clothing is acquired in a ḥarām manner, and he is nourished with ḥarām, so how can he [i.e. his prayers – his du’as] be answered (by Allāh when he makes du’ā)! [Muslim].

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Leave (off) that which makes you doubt for that which does not make you doubt (An-Nasā-ī)

(2nd Revision: September 2018) (Copyright: MJCHT)

Appendix III

Ṭay-yib – طي ب [pl. Ṭay-yibāt - طي بات] Introduction There is a symbiotic relationship between ḥalāl and ṭay-yib. Ṭay-yib - طي ب, which literally means

‘wholesome, good, pure and nutritious’ is an integral part of ḥalāl. Establishing a firm understanding and appreciation for the symbiotic relationship between ḥalāl and ṭay-yib, we need to understand that there are various other dimensions that one has to take into account, as well. This includes that when it comes to establishing the wholesomeness (ṭay-yib aspect) of a product and/or whatever relates to the ḥalāl certification procedures and processes of especially consumable goods/commodities and of the entire ḥalāl-chain from A-Z, then various other things need to be taken into consideration.

In this document, we highlight a few of the “other considerations” that need to be taken into account when making assessments/judgements in respect of ṭay-yib, namely: the role of Satan (the devil). In another document we explore the absolute relevance of ‘Doubtful Matters’ and ‘Food Adulteration’, pertaining to ṭay-yib.

Defining the Religious Concept: Ṭay-yib

Ṭay-yib – طي ب [pl. Ṭay-yibāt, طي بات]

The concept ṭay-yib is synonymous to and is inextricably associated with the religious term ‘ḥalāl’.

Ṭay-yib generally means good, pure, nutritious and inherently wholesome from its source, which is

the direct opposite of khubth (خبث)13.

Ṭay-yib is the hallmark of authenticity (in its claims) of best quality, hygiene, cleanliness, nutrition and organic (i.e. in tune with its natural, biological environment).

Ṭay-yib further ensures the quality of the product or consumable, which is microbiologically safe, free from chemical and physical hazards or pathogens that are harmful enzymes, diseases, germs, microbial viruses or other microorganisms.

Other Definitions / Descriptions for Ṭay-yib

• The concept ṭay-yib - طي ب [pl. ṭay-yibāt, طي بات] has great significance in terms of ḥalāl and its

various dimensions.

• Ṭay-yib is generally associated with ḥalāl, or ṭay-yib is synonymous to ḥalāl.

• Generally, ṭay-yib means: good, pure14, inherently wholesome and nutritious; it is safe and has or promotes quality.

13 Khubth (بث ,means: All the bad, evil, wicked, filth, impure, unhygienic, repulsiveness, harmful, injurious, malignant (خ

and malicious; and unlawful things with regard to food, deeds, beliefs and persons.

14 Pure: The thesaurus meanings for ‘pure’ are: wholesome, clean, uncontaminated, unpolluted, unadulterated, untainted,

unalloyed – not corrupted. This is also the essence of what the religious concept, ṭay-yib implies.

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دع ما يريبك إلى ما ل يريبك

Leave (off) that which makes you doubt for that which does not make you doubt (An-Nasā-ī)

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• Technically, ṭay-yib means to find or deem something to be good, delightful, nutritious and

wholesome.

• Ṭay-yib is that which is clean and pure (ṭāhir), not dirt or filth (najis), and that which is not or it does not cause impurity, uncleanliness or filthiness. Thus, humanity is protected, guarded and saved from any such impurities, uncleanliness and filthiness because of being and/or embracing ṭay-yib.

• According to Prof Mariam Abdul Latif15, ṭay-yib holistically implies, amongst other: good and wholesome and it promotes high quality.

➢ It ensures safety (e.g. microbiologically safe, free from chemical and physical hazards).

➢ It is hygienic, clean, nutritious, authentic (in its claims) and organic (in sync with its natural environment).

➢ Prof Mariam further unpacks ‘ṭay-yib’ in terms of:-

a) Ṭay-yib & the Ḥalāl Stakeholders

b) Tripartite Management Approach

Industry Consumer

Government

➢ Consumer: to be knowledgeable and informed on ḥalāl food practices & able to make selective ḥalāl choices.

➢ Industry: responsible and accountable in producing ḥalāl and ṭay-yib food.

➢ Government: establish program policies and strategies to ensure effective surveillance and enforcement of ḥalāl consumables – ḥalāl hub.

➢ Ṭay-yib & Animal Husbandry

Good animal welfare Good animal handling at abattoir Good facilities for animals Good feeds and feeding methods Good environmental management Good transportation management

15 Prof Mariam bintu Abdul Latif is from Malaysia and a former Lecturer at the Sabah University, Malaysia in the Dept.

of food nutrition and ḥalāl development.

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دع ما يريبك إلى ما ل يريبك

Leave (off) that which makes you doubt for that which does not make you doubt (An-Nasā-ī)

(2nd Revision: September 2018) (Copyright: MJCHT)

Ṭay-yib, by definition and implication, enhances and expands the purpose of ḥalāl. One cannot declare or confer something ḥalāl, whilst ignoring the associated hygiene, health, sanitation and food safety aspects; the inherent wholesomeness, purity, safety and high quality (i.e. the ṭay-yib) nature of the ḥalāl-compliant ingredient, product or facility. Ḥalāl and ṭay-yib therefore go hand-in-hand.

The critical role and application of ṭay-yib have absolute relevance to and it is a guiding tool in unpacking the application of the following Shar-ī (Islāmic legal) Principle:-

التحريم يتبع الخبث والضررThe prohibition of things is due to their impurity and harmfulness.

The Prophet Muḥammad (Pbuh) is also reported to have said:-

إن هللا طي ب ، ل يقبل إل طي با.Indeed, Allāh is pure. He does not accept, except that which is pure.

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دع ما يريبك إلى ما ل يريبك

Leave (off) that which makes you doubt for that which does not make you doubt (An-Nasā-ī)

(2nd Revision: September 2018) (Copyright: MJCHT)

Ṭay-yib from a Qurānic Perspective • Ṭay-yib and its derivative contexts are mentioned about thirty-three (33) times in the Holy Qurān.

[ṭay-yib (طي ب): 7 verses], [ṭay-yiban (طي با): 6 verses], [ṭay-yibāt (طي بات): 20 verses] = 33 times. In one of these verses, Almighty Allāh says:-

لون ك ل كمي سأ حلذ

أ قلأ ل همأ حلذ

أ اذ ا تم يب ٱلطذ

They ask you [O Muḥammad (Pbuh)] what is lawful (ḥalāl) for them (as food). Say: Lawful unto you are the ṭay-yibāt (i.e. that which is good, pure, nutritious and inherently wholesome) [Al Mā-idah: Q5: 4].

• Let us conscientiously contemplate how Almighty Allāh guides us on ‘ḥalālan ṭay-yiban’.

The two religious concepts [i.e. ḥalāl (حلل) and ṭay-yib (طي ب)] are mentioned as one unit in four qurānic verses, viz.:-

ا ه ي أ افٱنلذاسي رضكواممذ

تٱلأ ت تذبعواخطو ل يباو لط ل ن ح يأط بينل كمأۥإنذهٱلشذ دوم ع 1. O humanity! Eat of that which is lawful (permitted in Sacred Law), pure and inherently

wholesome sustenance in/on (mother) earth, and follow not the footsteps of the devil (Satan). Verily, he (Satan) is to you an avowed enemy (Al-Baqarah: Q2: 168).

ز ق كمف كوا ار ممذ يباو ٱللذ لط ل ح كروا ٱشأ م ت نعأ بدون ٱللذ إيذاهت عأ إنكنتمأ2. So, eat of the lawful, pure, good and inherently wholesome food, which Allāh has provided

for you. And be grateful for the Graces of Allāh, if it is He whom you worship (An-Naḥl: Q16: 114).

كوا ز ق كمو ار ممذ و ٱللذ يبا لط ل ح ٱتذقوا ي ٱللذ نتمبهٱلذ منون ۦأ مؤأ

3. And eat of the things which Allāh has provided for you lawful, pure, good and inherently wholesome sustenance. And have taqwā in Allāh in whom you believe (Al Mā-idah: Q5: 88).

و ف كوا يبا لط ل ح تمأ نمأ اغ ممذ ٱتذقوا ٱللذ إنذ فوررذحيمٱللذ غ 4. So, enjoy what you have obtained of booty in war, lawful, pure, good and inherently

wholesome sustenance. And have taqwā in Allāh. Certainly, Allāh is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful (Al-Anfāl: Q8: 69).

Almighty Allāh says in other qurānic verses:-

ا ه ي أ ين ي ٱلذ ن ال كممن ر جأ خأ

أ ا ممذ و بأتمأ س اك تم يب نفقوامنط

نو اأ رض ء ام

مواٱلأ ت ي مذ ل تما‍بٱلأ بيث و ل سأ و خذيهمنأهتنفقون مضوافيه و نتغأ

إلذ أ ل مو ا ٱعأ نذ

أ نيٱللذ غ يدن ح

O you who believe! Spend of the good, pure and inherently wholesome things which you have legally earned, and of that which We have produced from the earth for you. And do not aim at that which is bad to spend from it, (though) you would not accept it save if you close your eyes and tolerate therein. And you know that Allāh is Rich (free of all needs) and Worthy of all praises (Al-Baqarah: Q2: 267).

عب ادي ي ين قلأ ن طوامنرذحأ ةٱلذ ت قأ ل نفسهمأ أ فوالع سأ

أ ٱللذ إنذ فرٱللذ غأ نوب ي إنذهٱل يعا ۥج ٥٣ٱلرذحيمٱلأغ فورهو نيبو ا

أ و إل

لموال سأ أ و بكمأ تي كمۥر

أني أ

بألأ ابمنق ذ ٱلأع ون تنص ل ثمذ

Say: "O ‘ibādī (My slaves)! Who have transgressed against themselves (by committing evil deeds and sins)! Despair not of the Mercy of Allāh! Verily Allāh forgives all sins. Truly, He is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. And turn in repentance and in obedience with true faith to your Lord and submit to Him, (in Islām), before the torment comes upon you, then you will not be helped [Az-Zumar: Q39: 53-54].

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دع ما يريبك إلى ما ل يريبك

Leave (off) that which makes you doubt for that which does not make you doubt (An-Nasā-ī)

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A Brief Analysis of One of the Above-mentioned Qurānic Verses Almighty Allāh says:-

ا ه ي أ افٱنلذاسي رضكواممذ

تٱلأ ت تذبعواخطو ل يباو لط ل ن ح يأط بينۥإنذهٱلشذ دوم ع ل كمأO humanity! Eat of that which is lawful (permitted in Sacred Law), pure and inherently wholesome sustenance in/on (mother) earth, and follow not the footsteps of the devil (Satan). Verily, he (Satan) is to you an avowed enemy (Al-Baqarah: Q2: 168).

In this verse (Q2: 168) Almighty Allāh (our Creator) addresses not only the Muslims & the believers in Allāh, but also the non-believers or disbelievers, whether they are Christians, Jews, Hindus, Buddhists, Baha-is, Sikhs, agnostics/atheists, communists, amongst all the other belief systems in the universe – i.e. the entire humanity. Almighty Allāh is instructing the entire humanity to eat & drink – as a form of their survival on earth – i.e. whatever is edible in/on mother earth, as long as what they consume is ḥalāl (i.e. lawful, according to Sacred Law) and ṭay-yib (i.e. nutritious, pure and inherently wholesome from its source). Obviously, the consumption habits must be moderate and within reasonable parameters, thus eliminating any extravagance, greed and/or over-indulgence and unnecessary wastages. For example, the Prophet Muḥammad (Pbuh) guides us how to get rid of our bad habits of eating:-

عليه وسلهم :قال ب ر ك ي د ع م ن ب دام ق م عن ا وعاء آدمي مل ما :قال رسول للاه صلهى للاه آدم اب ن بحس ب ، بط ن من شرن أكلت .لنفسه وثلث لشرابه وثلث لطعامه فثلث محالة ل كان فإن ، صل به يقم

(سنن الترمذي كتاب الزهد باب ما جاء في كراهية كثرة األكل)When filled with food, the belly becomes the worst container for the son of Ādam. It is sufficient to have a few bites to keep oneself fit (strong and healthy - sulbahu). If one must eat, then let him use one-third for food, one-third for water, and one-third for breathing (Tirmidhī, ḥadīth no: 2380).

The bottom-line is that in the process of securing and guaranteeing ḥalāl & ṭay-yib, we need to be cognizant of abstaining from and avoiding involvement in any ḥarām, cross-contamination or adulteration of the ḥalāl & ṭay-yib.

In the same vein of the qurānic instruction to consume only ḥalāl & ṭay-yib and Almighty Allāh’s overall benefaction, multitude of favours and bestowal of good unto humanity, He (Allāh) is also ordering us to abstain from and avoid all that which are not beneficial or detrimental to our physical bodies, spiritual souls and intellectual minds. Almighty Allāh makes an unequivocal parallel between any ḥarām, evil or misdemeanour and whatever is contrary to ḥalāl & ṭay-yib with that of shayṭān [Satan (Iblīs) - the devil]. Hence, whilst we are vigilant and cognizant about all aspects of ḥalāl & ṭay-yib and implementing them to the best of our abilities, we must be conscientiously careful not to fall into or succumb to the traps and beguilement of shayṭān (Satan). In another qurānic verse, Almighty Allāh clearly states:- مٱو من نأع

ز ق كملأ ار كواممذ ف رأشا ول ةو ٱح تللذ ت تذبعواخطو ل ن ٱو يأط بيۥإنذهلشذ دوم ع ل كمأAnd of cattle (He created) beasts of burden and those which are fit for (ḥalāl) slaughtering only; eat of what Allāh has given you and do not follow the footsteps of Satan (shayṭān). Surely, he is your open enemy (Al-An’ām: Q6: 142).

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دع ما يريبك إلى ما ل يريبك

Leave (off) that which makes you doubt for that which does not make you doubt (An-Nasā-ī)

(2nd Revision: September 2018) (Copyright: MJCHT)

Hereunder, we present an exposition on the trickery, deceitful and misleading nature/character of Satan from a Qurān perspective and for us to realize why Almighty Allāh emphatically stated that:

ت ت تذبعواخطو ل ن و يأط بينۥإنذهٱلشذ دوم ع ل كمأAnd follow not the footsteps of the devil (Satan). Verily, he (Satan) is to you an avowed enemy, immediately after Almighty Allāh first instructs humanity to:-

اف رضكواممذيباٱلأ لط ل ح

Eat of that which is lawful (permitted in Sacred Law), pure and inherently wholesome

sustenance in/on (mother) earth (Al-Baqarah: Q2: 168). Referring to Satan’s treachery nature, Almighty Allāh unambiguously states:- ت عأ نلذ

أ ء اد م ب ن ي أكمأ إل دأ ه عأ

أ ل مأ

ٱبدواأ ن يأط بيۥإنذهلشذ دوم ع ل كمأ

Did I not enjoin upon you, O children of Adam, that you do not worship Satan - [for] indeed, he is to you an avowed enemy?

ن أ بدون ٱو ت قيمعأ سأ طم اصر ذ ه

And that you worship [only] Me? This is a straight path. قلون ت كونوات عأ ف ل مأ

ثرياأ ك جبل منكمأ لذ ض

أ دأ ل ق و

And he (Satan) had already led astray from among you much of creation, so did you not use reason? [Yāsīn: 60-62].

The Beguilement of the Devil (Satan) Almighty Allāh describes shayṭān [i.e. Satan (Iblīs) – the devil] in the following, amongst other, verses in the Holy Qurān. These verses are self-explanatory and should they be understood properly and comprehensively, one should be able to comprehend effectively the deceitful role and the demeaning characteristics of shayṭān in the life of each human being. Actually, it is the life-reality of how the devil operates & functions and influences us in our daily lives and at the end of the day, he (the devil) simply distances himself from us and declares emphatically to Almighty Allāh that:-

“Assuredly, I am innocent (guiltless) of what they are doing / believing. I fear Almighty Allāh.”

Says Almighty Allāh:-

ث ل م نك يأط نٱلشذ نس للأ فرأإذأق ال افٱكأ خ

إن أ ءمنك ب ري إن

ق ال ر ف اك ف ل مذ ٱللذ ل مي ر بذ ٱلأع (And the hypocrites are) like shayṭān (Satan) when he orders man: Disbelieve! But when he disbelieves, he (Satan) says: I am surely innocent (guiltless) of you. Surely, I fear Allāh, the Lord of the universe (Al-Ḥashr: Q59: 16). ل همإوذأ يذن نز يأط ل كمٱلشذ لب غ ل و ق ال ل همأ م عأ

ٱلأ وأم أ ا ء تٱنلذاسمن ات ر ف ل مذ ارلذكمأ ج ٱلأفئ ت انإون قب يأهو ق ال ع لع ص ن ك

إن ن وأ ت ر ال ىم ر إن أ ءمنكمأ ب ري افإن خ

أ و ٱللذ ديدٱللذ ابش ٱلأعق

And when shayṭān made their works seem fair to them and said: “No one of humanity can overcome you this day, for surely I am your protector.” But when the two armies came in sight of each other, he (Satan) took flight, saying: “Assuredly, I am innocent (guiltless) of you. Indeed, I see that which you do not see. Surely, I fear Allāh. And Allāh is severe in punishment [Al-Anfāl: Q8: 48).

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دع ما يريبك إلى ما ل يريبك

Leave (off) that which makes you doubt for that which does not make you doubt (An-Nasā-ī)

(2nd Revision: September 2018) (Copyright: MJCHT)

Almighty Allāh further describes shayṭān [Satan (Iblīs) - the devil]:- إوذأ ة ئك ل قلأن اللأم جدوا طيناٱسأ ت ل قأ خ نأ جدلم سأ

ء أ ق ال إبأليس إلذ ا دو ج ف س ق ال ٦١ألد م ا ذ ه ت ك ر ء يأ

يأ ٱلذ ل ئنأ ذ لع رذمأت ك

ي وأم ت نإل رأ خذ ةأ م ذريذت هٱلأقي نذ ت نك حأ

ق ليلۥ ل ق ال ٦٢إلذ نت بٱذأه بأ م وأفوراف ا ءمذ ز ج ا ؤكمأ ز ج نذم ه ج ف إنذ منأهمأ ع ك And when We said to the angels: “Prostrate yourselves before Ādam”, they all prostrated themselves, except Iblīs (shayṭān) who said: “Shall I bow to him whom You have created of clay?” He (Iblīs further) said: “Do You see this (creature) whom You have honoured above me, if You grant me respite until the Day of Resurrection, I will most certainly cause his progeny to perish, except a few.”

He (Allāh) said: “Go your way! For whoever of them will follow you, then surely hell is your (and their) recompense (reward), a full recompense. ززأ ت فأ نو ٱسأ عأت م ت ط فٱسأ همأ اركأ و ش ر جلك و ل يأهمب يألك ع لبأ جأ

أ و تك وأ لمنأهمبص و مأ

دو ٱلأ ل وأاٱلأ و م همأ ني عدهمو عدأ يأط ٱلشذ

غرورا إلذAnd beguile [you – Iblīs (shayṭān)] whomsoever of them you can with your (seductive) voice. Rally against them your forces of cavalry and infantry, be a partner (share with them) in their wealth and children, and make promises to them. And the devil (shayṭān) makes not promises to them, except to deceive them. كيلإنذ و بك بر ف ك و ن سلأط ل يأهمأ ع ل ك عب اديل يأس Indeed, (as for) My (true) servants, you shall have no power & authority over them. Your Lord is sufficient as (their) Guardian & Protector (Al-Isrā: Q17: 61 - 65).

ل ذ نت ن م لع ن بئكمأأ لأ طيه ي ل٢٢١ٱلشذ ذ ثيمت ن

فذاكأ

أ ك ٢٢٢لع ع يلأقون مأ ذبون ٱلسذ ك همأ ث كأ

أ و

Shall I (Allāh) inform you (of him) upon whom the devils (shayāṭīn) actually descend? They descend upon every lying, sinful one. They listen eagerly (to half-truths), but most of them are liars (Ash-Shu’arā: Q26: 221-223).

ن إنذ يأط بيٱلشذ دوم نع نس للأ

Indeed, the devil (shayṭān) is an open enemy to man (Yusuf: Q12: 5). دأ نلذق لذنع ض

رأ

ٱلكأ ن ك ا ء نو إذأج د نٱلب عأ يأط ذولشذ نخ نس للأ

Certainly, he (shayṭān – my worldly friend & companion) led me astray from the reminder [i.e. the teachings of the Qurān and the Sunnah of the Prophet Muḥammad (Pbuh)] after it had come to me! And the devil (shayṭān) is man’s betrayer (deserter) [Al-Furqān: Q25: 29]. ل مأ

أ إل ين ت ر ٱلذ وتوان صيبامن

بأ ٱلأكت ب منون بأتيؤأ

غوتو ٱلأ ٱلطذ ىمن د هأ ؤل ءأ رواه ف ك ين للذ ي قولون ين و نواٱلذ ء ام

بيل س Have you not seen those to whom a portion of the Book has been given? They believe in idols (jibt) and false deities (ṭāghūt) and say of those who disbelieve: “These are more rightly guided in the straight path than those who believe” (An-Nisā: Q4: 51).

ا ه ي أ ين ي تٱلذ ت تذبعواخطو نوال ن ء ام يأط تٱلشذ خطو ني تذبعأ نو م يأط ۥف إنذهٱلشذ مرب

أا ءي أ ش حأ ر و ٱلأف

أمنك لٱل ف ضأ ل ل وأ و ٱللذ ل يأكمأ ع ر حأ ته منكممۥو از ك ب داو م

دأ ح

أ كنذنأ ل و ٱللذ ا ء ني ش م ك يز ليمٱللذ ع ميعن س

O you who believe! Do not follow the footsteps of the shayṭān (Satan). And whoever follows the footsteps of the shayṭān, then, verily, he commands the doing of faḥshā (indecency & illicit sexual intercourse) and munkar (i.e. to do wrongful, evil & wicked deeds; and to speak or do things that are forbidden in Islām).

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دع ما يريبك إلى ما ل يريبك

Leave (off) that which makes you doubt for that which does not make you doubt (An-Nasā-ī)

(2nd Revision: September 2018) (Copyright: MJCHT)

And had it not been for the Grace of Allāh and His Mercy upon you, not one of you would have ever been pure from sin. But Allāh purifies (and guides to Islām) whom He pleases; and Allāh is the All-Hearer, All-Knower (An-Nūr: Q24: 21).

The Ṭāghūt (الطاغ وت) – False Gods/Deities Linked to the above descriptions and status of shayṭān [Satan (Iblīs) - the devil], is what Almighty Allāh describes as ṭāghūt (الطاغ وت) – false gods/deities.

“Ṭāghūt - false gods/deities” refers essentially to whatever is worshipped, or one is making oneself subservient in belief and obedience to anyone / anything else, other than Almighty Allāh (God). By extension, being a ṭāghūt is when one dogmatically and systemically subscribes to the worldly materialism, idealism and temporal life-realities, whilst completely ignoring or rejecting one’s spiritual connectivity (or one’s spirituality) with Almighty Allāh and the Afterlife. Says Almighty Allāh:- ل مأ

أ إل ين ت ر ٱلذ مو اإل اك ت ح ني

أ يريدون بألك منق نزل

أ ا و م أك إل نزل

أ ا نوابم ء ام نذهمأ

أ غوتي زأعمون فرواٱلطذ ني كأ

اأ مرو

أ و ق دأ

به يريدۦ نو يأط ب عٱلشذ ا ل ل ض نيضلذهمأ يداأ

Have you not seen those who pretend that they believe in that which is revealed to you and that which was revealed before you? They desire to summon one another to the judgment of false gods [ṭāghūt (i.e. shayṭān and his worldly life-realities)], though they were commanded to deny and reject them. Shayṭān would lead them far astray, into remote error (An-Nisā: Q4: 60).

اه فل ر ٱلين إكأ دق دتذب يذ ٱلرشأ من غ ٱلأ ب فرأ ني كأ غوتف م ٱلطذ ب منا يؤأ و دٱللذ ق ك ف ت مأس ٱسأ ةب و ٱلأعرأ أوثأق ٱل ام ل و ٱنفص ا ل ه ٱللذ

ليمن ع ميعن س There is no compulsion in the dīn (the Way of Life of Islām). Truly, the right way (true guidance) has become clearly distinct from error. Therefore, whoever disbelieves in & rejects ṭāghūt (i.e. shayṭān and his worldly life-realities), and believes in Allāh, he indeed has grasped the firmest and strongest handhold that will never break. And Allāh is All-Hearing, All-Knowing (Al-Baqarah: Q2: 256).

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27

دع ما يريبك إلى ما ل يريبك

Leave (off) that which makes you doubt for that which does not make you doubt (An-Nasā-ī)

(2nd Revision: September 2018) (Copyright: MJCHT)

YOUR HALĀL CERTIFIER OF CHOICE

The Muslim Judicial Council Halaal Trust is a NGO/NPO that was established in 1945. It formally adopted its

legal status in 1986 as a legal halal authority, the MJC Halaal Trust (MJCHT), to endorse and certify halal

products and consumables for the Muslims of South Africa and beyond the South African borders. Currently

its halal product logo is legally registered with the South African authorities.

The MJC Halaal Trust Corporate LOGO The MJC Halaal Trust Product LOGO

RECOGNITION

Ensuring and having the constant concern that Muslims, especially in South Africa, eat and drink nutritional,

wholesome and halal (i.e. halal and tay-yib) food and drink, is an entrenched-accolade for our pioneering

religious leaders (‘ulamā), especially in the Western Cape. The fundamental blocks for halal-assurance and

halal-control were laid by them, which subsequently developed into an informal structure to a formal

body/structure for halal certification (i.e. the MJCHT). This was achieved by consulting ‘ulamā and other

persons, mostly experts, professionals and academics in the field. In this way, Muslims were assured of halal

dietary/food for themselves in South Africa. The formal registration of the MJCHT as a Trust in 1986 gave it

an additional boost as an acclaimed halal certifying authority, which is duly recognized locally, nationally and

internationally. Through the international travels, the literature review and the learning-curves in the effort to

understand the current global halal market/trends, one realizes that the MJCHT is not only the oldest

organization for halal certification in South Africa, but also the first halal entity in the world to have introduced

halal certification, as an organization (i.e. a NGO / NPO).

Remember, when in doubt, ABSTAIN!

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Contamination of Halāl (Ref.: HT COH 2017)

28

دع ما يريبك إلى ما ل يريبك

Leave (off) that which makes you doubt for that which does not make you doubt (An-Nasā-ī)

(2nd Revision: September 2018) (Copyright: MJCHT)

Always look for the MJCHT LOGO:

YOUR HALAL LOGO of TRUST!