Hill Tribe Today Thailand Book Full 1989

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john mckinnon1-11 LL T R I I ) ~ TODRYbernord vienne!'white lotus-orstomHILL TRIBES TODAYHILL TRIBES TODAyPROBLEMS IN CHANGEbyJohn McKinnonBernard VienneWhite Lotus-Orstom (TRI-ORSTOM PROJECf)1989White Lotus Co. ,Ltd.G.P.O.Box 1141BangkokThailandandC.R.S.T.O.M. Institut Franais de RechercheScientifique pour le Dveloppement en Coopration,213, Rue La Fayette75480 Paris Cedex 10France 1989 by O.R.S.T.O.M. Ali rights reservedDistribution world wide by White Lotus Co.,Ltd.Printed in ThailandProduced bySiripat Co.,Ltd.ISBN 974-8495-25-6Dedicated to the memory ofBill Geddes and Lucien Hanksin acknowledgement of theircontribution to the understandingof chao khaoCONTENTSPageList of Contributors ixAcknowledgernents xviiIntroduction: Cri tical Words for Critical Days xixJohn McKinnon & Bernard VienneINTERVENTION: POLICY & UNDERSTANDING.......... IGovernment Policy : Highland Ethnie Minorities 5Wanat BhruksasriFacing Development in the Highlands: A Challengefor Thai Society 33Bernard VienneThe Poisoning Effect of a Lovers Triangle :Highlanders, Opium and Extension Crops, a PolicyOverdue for Review 61Chupinit KesmaneePROBLEMS: POVERTY &IDENTITY 103Highland Agriculture: From Better to Worse 107Chantaboon Sutthi"Women and Children First?" A review of thecurrent nutritional status in the highlands 143Ra/ana ManeeprasertOpiate of the People? A Case Study of Lahu OpiumAddicts 159Sanit WongsprasertAnarchists of the Highlands? A Critical Reviewof a Stereotype Applied to the Lisu 173Prasert ChaipigusitLisu identity in Northern Thailand : A Problematiquefor Anthropology 191Yves ConradviiRESETTLEMENT : OPINIONS &INTERPRETATIONSi 223Problem Solving Through Understanding : APersonal Opinion on How to Approach Develop-ment Problems in the Highlands 227Wanat Bhruksasri14 April 1986 : Eviction Orders to the Hmong ofHuai Yew Yee Village, Huai Kha Khaeng WildlifeSanctuary, Thailand 249Ardith A. EudeyTerritorial Imperatives : Akha Ethnie Identity andThailand's National Integration 259Cornelia Ann KammererStructural Assimilation and the Consensus: ClearingGrounds on which to Rearrange our Thoughts 303John McKinnonREFLECTIONS : FRAGMENTS & IMPRESSIONS 361Hill Tribe People BIamed for Deforestation 363Vithoon PungprasertKaren: When the Wind Blows 369Pravit PhothiartHighlanders as Portrayed in Tha Penny-horribles 393Jean BaffieWeddings, Wealth, Pigs and Coca Cola: farangTourists in an Akha Village .409Duangta SeewuthiwongAPPENDICES1. Hill Tribe Population of Thailand 425II. List of Swidden Plants 427Ill. List of Non-swidden Plants 4371V. List of Exotic Plants Introduced into theHighlands 451V. Target Areas for Prevention of ForestDestruction by Hilltribes 471VI. List of Plates .475viiiList of ContributorsMr. Wanat Bbruksasri has been the Director of the TribalResearch Institute since it was established in 1964. He took hisfirst academie diploma from Chulalongkorn University inJournalism, and his first degree in law, from Thammasat(1952). In 1953he partieipated in the first course on social workto be offered in Thailand and subsequently took a graduateDiploma in Social Welfare from the University College ofSwansea (1958). After attending the London School ofEconomies he returned to Thailand to be assigned a pioneer rolein survey work in the highlands. Just before he was called backto establish the research centre he studied Research Methodologyin Social Welfare at the University of California, Berkeley.Widely known in Thailand as a humanist and expert on the hilltribes he has consistently argued for their voluntary integrationinto the nation state. He has published numerous papers inboth Thai and English and co-edited Highlanders of Thailand(OUP, 1983). In 1983 his outstanding contribution to socialresearch in Thailand was acknowledged by a Pakorn Angsusin-gha Foundation Award.Dr. Bernard Vienne is a French trained social anthropolo-gist who holds a tenured position as senior researcher withORSTOM. He has worked extensively in the Pacifie Islandsincluding Vanuatu, New Caledonia, Banks Islands and Motlav.He is weil known in the French speaking world both as anadvocated of equitable treatrnent and representation forindigenous people as weIl as his interdisciplinary work witharchaeologists, geographers and a nutritionist. His recent bookGens de Motlav; Ideologie et Pratique Sociale en MelanesieIX(Socit des Ocanistes, Paris: 1984) has been acknowledgedwith favourable comments from Louis Dumont and ClaudeLevi-Strauss. Since 1986, Vienne has been engaged inresearch in cooperation with personnel from the TRI studyingthe survival strategies of the Akha.Mr. Chupinit Kesmanee is a senior researcher at the TRIwho specialises in Hmong studies. He took his first degreein anthropology from Thammasat University, Bangkok andholds a graduate Diploma in Social Planning in DevelopingCountries from the London School of Economies and PoliticalScience. Chupinit has worked in the highlands for over 12years, undertaken joint studies with many foreign scholarsof Hmong society and has published over 15 papers in Thai basedon his own fieldwork. A review of his study of relocationactivities in Kamphaeng Phet (1986) was recently publishedin Cultural Survive! Quarterly (Vol. 12, No.3, 1988). He iscurrently undertaking graduate studies as Victoria University ofWellington, New Zealand.Mr. Chantaboon Sutthi is a senior researcher with the TRI.Trained as an agricultural scientist at Kasetsat University,Bangkok, Mr. Chantaboon has spent most of his workinglife dealing with either practical and administrative issuesaffecting the welfare of hill tribe people or investigatingtheir management of both indigenous and introduced geneticresources available in their rapidly changing ecologicaland economie environment. He commenced systematic surveywork in this field by collecting over 1200 varieties of highlandrice and lodged these in a genetic rice bank in both Thailandand the Philippines. He is particularly interested in thesystemic, organisational and botanical changes taking placeunder increased commercialisation and intensification ofhighland agriculture. He has also written several scientificpapers on the history, use and botanical nature of opium andspecial varieties of canabis sativa. ln a forthcoming book he willlist and index by scientific cornmon English and Thai names,most of the plant materials used in the highlands.xMs Ralana Maneeprasert, a TRI researcher, is a graduate ofChulalongkorn University and holds a masters degree innutrition from the University of Queensland (1980). She isparticularly interested in the role of women and the positionof children in highland society. Most of her fieldwork hasbeen conducted amongst the Hmong but she has also studiedrice consumption in a Lisu community and is currently engagedin interdisciplinary cooperative research work on the Akhain which dietary information is being correlated with communityaccess to, and management of, land resources and the annualround of customary rituals. She has presented papers atinternational gatherings in Australia, the Philippines andThailand.Mr. Sanit Wongsprasert has an ideal set of academiequalifications for an anthropologist. He first studied agricultureat Mae Jo College, subsequently took a degree in Social Admi-nistration from Tharnrnasat University and then a mastersdegree in social anthropology from the University of Sydney.As a senior researcher at the TRI he has specialised in theLahu but a list of his publications reveals the breadth of hisinterest in highland society. He has published work on popula-tion growth, agriculture, trade and commerce, leadership, foodconsumption, rhual and his most recently published article"Impact of the Dhammacarik Bhikkus' Programme on theHill Tribes of Thailand" appeared in a book entitled EthnieConlict in Buddhist Societies: Sri Lanka, Thailand and BurmaMr. Sanit has been particularly active in NGO work associatedwith the King's Project and the University of Chiang Mai,Faculty of Agriculture.Mr. Prasert Chaipigusit is the Lisu specialist and a seniorresearcher at the Tribal Research Institute. He took his first degreein social administration from Thammasat University and spenta year studying ethnology at the University of Vienna. He haspublished more than a dozen articles on various aspects ofLisu culture: altars, opium, traditional media, naming systems,Xlfolk songs, play, houses, leadership and evaluated theeffectiveness of Buddhist missionary activities. This interestin research in nicely balanced by several years administrative anddevelopment work experience in the North-west and North-east of Thailand. Mr. Prasert has participated in project evalua-tion, studied peop!e