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    SEQUENCE

    History

    Roads in Pakistan

    Classification of roads Components and typical cross section of a

    road

    Important terminologies

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    History

    Pre-Historic Era

    Advent of Wheel - 3500 B.C.

    Egyptian Empire - 2600 B.C.

    Carthaginians in Tunisia - 600 B.C.

    Roman Empire - VIA APPIA 312 B.C.

    Dark Age of Europe

    18th Century onward

    Telfor Telford - 1757

    Macadam - 1756-1836

    1st Bitumen road built in USA - 1906

    1st PCC road built in USA - 1909

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    Historical Development of Roadways

    Roman Empire (VIA APPIA 312 B.C.)

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    Historical Development of Roadways

    Telfor Telford (1757)

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    Historical Development of Roadways

    Macadam (1756-1836)

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    Historical Development of Roadways

    PCC Road (USA, 1919)

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    Highway & Traffic Engineering

    ROAD INFRASTRUCTURE IN PAKISTAN

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    GIS Roadmap of Pakistan

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    National Highways & Motorways

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    Grand Trunk Road

    Maurya empire built a road from Taxila to Patliputra (present day Patna inBihar, India)

    In the 16th century, a major road running across india was built by Pashtunemperor Sher Shah Suri

    Sadak-e-Azam (great road) as it was then known, is universally

    recognized as having been the herald of the Grand Trunk Road Road was initially built by Sher Shah to connect Agra, his capital, with

    Sasaram, his hometown

    It was soon extended westward to Multan and eastward to Sonargaon inBengal (now in Bangladesh)

    The Mughals, who succeeded the Suris, extended the road westwards: at

    one time, it extended to Kabul in Afghanistan, crossing the Kheyber Pass Road was later improved by the British rulers of colonial India. Renamed

    the Grand Trunk Road (sometimes referred to as the Long Walk), it

    Was extended to run from Calcutta to Peshawar and thus to span a majorportion of India

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    Karakoram Highway

    Karakoram Highway (KKH) is the highest paved international road in theworld

    It connects China and Pakistan across the Karakoram mountain range,through the Khunjerab Pass at an altitude of 4,693 m/15,397 ft

    It connects Chinas Xinjiang region with Pakistans Gilgit-Baltistan and also

    serves as a popular tourist attraction It is also referred to as National Highway 35 (N35)

    Due to its high elevation and difficult conditions in which it wasconstructed, it is also referred to as the Ninth Wonder of the World

    Karakoram Highway, also known as the Friendship Highway in China, wasbuilt by the governments of Pakistan and China, and was completed in

    1986 810 Pakistani and 82 Chines e workers lost their lives, mostly in landslides

    and falls, while building the highway

    Route of the KKH traces one of the many paths of the ancient Silk Road

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    Alignment of Karakoram Highway

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    National Highway Network

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    Transport Sector

    Accounts for 10.5% of GDP

    Growth rate Freight Traffic 3%

    Growth rate Passengers 4.5%

    Road Sector Accounts for:

    Passenger Traffic 91% Freight Traffic 95%

    Total Road Network 258,000 km

    National Highways 140,726 km

    Farm to Market Roads 117,233 km

    Highways 254410km Paved 109,396 km

    Unpaved 145,014 km

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    Transport Sector

    National Highway Authority (NHA) is looking

    after 8780 km i.e. 4% of entire road network

    and caters for 63% of road traffic

    - 3462 km Very Poor

    - 1252 km Poor

    - 389 km Fair-2062 km Good

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    Highway & Traffic Engineering

    OVERVIEW OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING

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    Users / Content

    Passengers Freight

    Board, get off and transfer

    without assistance

    Must be loaded, unloaded and

    transferred

    Process information and act on

    it without assistance

    The information must be

    processed through logistics

    manager

    Make choices between meansof transport often irrationally

    Logistics managers makechoices between means of

    transportation rationally

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    Transportation Engineering

    Application of technology and scientific principles to theplanning functional design, operation and management offacilities for any mode of transportation in order to providefor the safe, rapid, comfortable, convenient, economical

    and environmentally compatible movement of people andgoods.

    Essentials of good transportation system

    Economy

    Safety

    Comfort Efficiency

    Impact upon environment

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    Highway and Traffic Engineering

    Definition: The application of technology and scientificprinciples to the planning, functional design, operationand management of roads, streets and highways, theirnetworks, terminals, abutting lands and relationships

    with other modes of transportation. Areas of highway transportation engineering

    Planning of streets and highways

    Geometric design of road facilities

    Traffic operations and controlTraffic safety

    Maintenance of road facilities and controls

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    Highway Transportation System

    Fixed facilities: roads, intersections,

    interchanges, service stations etc.

    Flow entities: passenger cars, buses, trucks,pedestrians etc.

    Control component: highway administration,

    local transportation agencies, transportation

    engineers.

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    Road

    A road is a path connecting two points

    Refers to the right of way between an origin

    and destination. In an urban context the wordstreet is often used rather than road, which

    dates to the Latin word strata, meaning

    pavement.

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    Classification of Roadways

    Functional

    Freeways and Expressways

    Highways

    Arterials

    Local streets

    Collectors streets Administrative

    Federally administered

    Provincial roads

    District roads

    Usage

    All weather roads Fair weather roads

    Carriageways

    Paved

    unpaved

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    Types of Pavements

    Flexible Pavement

    1st used in Paris 1854

    Surface course

    Base course

    Sub base course

    Rigid Pavement

    Concrete slab

    Sub base course

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    Typical Cross Section of a Roadway

    Platform: Horizontal surface raised above thesurrounding ground

    Shoulder: Space between the roadway and ditch

    Median Strip: Separation between two roadways

    Carriageway: Central part reserved for traffic

    Ditch: Channel that carries away water

    Sub Grade: Lowest surface of a road

    Base Course: Middle surface of a road

    Sub Base: Lower surface of a road

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    Highway & Traffic Engineering

    Important Terminologies

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    Highway & Traffic Engineering

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