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Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen Schiller, http://www.jochenschiller.de/ MC SS02 5.1 Mobile Communications Chapter 5: Satellite Systems History Basics Localization Handover Routing Systems

Mobile Communications Chapter 5: Satellite Systems · mobile station still in the footprint of the satellite, but in another cell Inter satellite handover zhandover from one satellite

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Page 1: Mobile Communications Chapter 5: Satellite Systems · mobile station still in the footprint of the satellite, but in another cell Inter satellite handover zhandover from one satellite

Pro

f. D

r.-I

ng. J

oche

nS

chill

er, h

ttp://

ww

w.jo

chen

schi

ller.

de/

MC

SS

025.

1

Mo

bile

Co

mm

un

icat

ion

sC

hap

ter

5: S

atel

lite

Sys

tem

s

His

tory

Bas

ics

Loca

lizat

ion

Han

dove

rR

outin

gS

yste

ms

Page 2: Mobile Communications Chapter 5: Satellite Systems · mobile station still in the footprint of the satellite, but in another cell Inter satellite handover zhandover from one satellite

Pro

f. D

r.-I

ng. J

oche

nS

chill

er, h

ttp://

ww

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chen

schi

ller.

de/

MC

SS

025.

2

His

tory

of s

atel

lite

com

mun

icat

ion

1945

Art

hur

C. C

lark

e pu

blis

hes

an e

ssay

abo

ut „

Ext

ra

Ter

rest

rial R

elay

s“19

57

firs

t sat

ellit

e S

PU

TN

IK19

60fir

st r

efle

ctin

g co

mm

unic

atio

n sa

telli

te E

CH

O19

63

first

geo

stat

iona

ry s

atel

lite

SY

NC

OM

1965

fir

st c

omm

erci

al g

eost

atio

nary

sat

ellit

e S

atel

lit„E

arly

Bird

“ (I

NT

ELS

AT

I): 2

40 d

uple

x te

leph

one

chan

nels

or

1 T

V

chan

nel,

1.5

year

s lif

etim

e

1976

thre

e M

AR

ISA

T s

atel

lites

for

mar

itim

e co

mm

unic

atio

n19

82

first

mob

ile s

atel

lite

tele

phon

e sy

stem

INM

AR

SA

T-A

1988

fir

st s

atel

lite

syst

em fo

r m

obile

pho

nes

and

data

co

mm

unic

atio

n IN

MA

RS

AT

-C19

93fir

st d

igita

l sat

ellit

e te

leph

one

syst

em

1998

gl

obal

sat

ellit

e sy

stem

s fo

r sm

all m

obile

pho

nes

Page 3: Mobile Communications Chapter 5: Satellite Systems · mobile station still in the footprint of the satellite, but in another cell Inter satellite handover zhandover from one satellite

Pro

f. D

r.-I

ng. J

oche

nS

chill

er, h

ttp://

ww

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chen

schi

ller.

de/

MC

SS

025.

3

App

licat

ions

Tra

ditio

nally

w

eath

er s

atel

lites

radi

o an

d T

V b

road

cast

sat

ellit

es

mili

tary

sat

ellit

es

sate

llite

s fo

r na

viga

tion

and

loca

lizat

ion

(e.g

., G

PS

)

Tel

ecom

mun

icat

ion

glob

al te

leph

one

conn

ectio

ns

back

bone

for

glob

al n

etw

orks

conn

ectio

ns fo

r co

mm

unic

atio

n in

rem

ote

plac

es o

r un

derd

evel

oped

area

s

glob

al m

obile

com

mun

icat

ion

sate

llite

sys

tem

s to

ext

end

cellu

lar

phon

e sy

stem

s (e

.g.,

GS

M o

rA

MP

S)

repl

aced

byfib

erop

tics

Page 4: Mobile Communications Chapter 5: Satellite Systems · mobile station still in the footprint of the satellite, but in another cell Inter satellite handover zhandover from one satellite

Pro

f. D

r.-I

ng. J

oche

nS

chill

er, h

ttp://

ww

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chen

schi

ller.

de/

MC

SS

025.

4

base

stat

ion

orga

tew

ay

Cla

ssic

alsa

telli

tesy

stem

s

Inte

r S

atel

lite

Link

(I

SL)

Mob

ile U

ser

Link

(M

UL)

Gat

eway

Link

(G

WL)

foot

prin

t

smal

lcel

ls(s

potb

eam

s)

Use

r da

ta

PS

TN

ISD

NG

SM

GW

L

MU

L

PS

TN

: Pub

lic S

witc

hed

Tel

epho

ne N

etw

ork

Page 5: Mobile Communications Chapter 5: Satellite Systems · mobile station still in the footprint of the satellite, but in another cell Inter satellite handover zhandover from one satellite

Pro

f. D

r.-I

ng. J

oche

nS

chill

er, h

ttp://

ww

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chen

schi

ller.

de/

MC

SS

025.

5

Bas

ics

Sat

ellit

es in

circ

ular

orb

itsat

trac

tive

forc

e F

g=

m g

(R

/r)²

cent

rifug

al fo

rce

Fc

= m

r ω

²m

: mas

s of

the

sate

llite

R: r

adiu

s of

the

eart

h (R

= 6

370

km)

r: d

ista

nce

to th

e ce

nter

of t

he e

arth

g: a

ccel

erat

ion

of g

ravi

ty (

g =

9.8

1 m

/s²)

ω: a

ngul

ar v

eloc

ity (

ω=

2 π

f, f:

rota

tion

freq

uenc

y)

Sta

ble

orbi

tF

g=

Fc

32

2 )2(

f

gRr

π=

Page 6: Mobile Communications Chapter 5: Satellite Systems · mobile station still in the footprint of the satellite, but in another cell Inter satellite handover zhandover from one satellite

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f. D

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MC

SS

025.

6

Sat

ellit

e pe

riod

and

orbi

ts

1020

3040

x10

6m

24 20 16 12 8 4

radi

us

sate

llite

pe

riod

[h]

velo

city

[ x1

000

km/h

]

sync

hron

ous

dist

ance

35,7

86 k

m

Page 7: Mobile Communications Chapter 5: Satellite Systems · mobile station still in the footprint of the satellite, but in another cell Inter satellite handover zhandover from one satellite

Pro

f. D

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ng. J

oche

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chill

er, h

ttp://

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de/

MC

SS

025.

7

Bas

ics

ellip

tical

or

circ

ular

orb

itsco

mpl

ete

rota

tion

time

depe

nds

on d

ista

nce

sate

llite

-ear

thin

clin

atio

n: a

ngle

bet

wee

n or

bit a

nd e

quat

orel

evat

ion:

ang

le b

etw

een

sate

llite

and

hor

izon

LOS

(Li

ne o

f Sig

ht)

to th

e sa

telli

te n

eces

sary

for

conn

ectio

nhi

gh e

leva

tion

need

ed, l

ess

abso

rptio

n du

e to

e.g

. bui

ldin

gs

Upl

ink:

con

nect

ion

base

sta

tion

-sa

telli

teD

ownl

ink:

con

nect

ion

sate

llite

-ba

se s

tatio

nty

pica

lly s

epar

ated

freq

uenc

ies

for

uplin

k an

d do

wnl

ink

tran

spon

der

used

for

send

ing/

rece

ivin

g an

d sh

iftin

g of

freq

uenc

ies

tran

spar

ent t

rans

pond

er: o

nly

shift

of f

requ

enci

es

rege

nera

tive

tran

spon

der:

add

ition

ally

sig

nal r

egen

erat

ion

Page 8: Mobile Communications Chapter 5: Satellite Systems · mobile station still in the footprint of the satellite, but in another cell Inter satellite handover zhandover from one satellite

Pro

f. D

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ng. J

oche

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MC

SS

025.

8

Incl

inat

ion

incl

inat

ion

δ

δ

sate

llite

orbi

t

perig

ee

plan

e of

sat

ellit

eor

bit

equa

toria

lpla

ne

Page 9: Mobile Communications Chapter 5: Satellite Systems · mobile station still in the footprint of the satellite, but in another cell Inter satellite handover zhandover from one satellite

Pro

f. D

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ng. J

oche

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chill

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ww

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schi

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de/

MC

SS

025.

9

Ele

vatio

n

Ele

vati

on

:an

gle

εbe

twee

n ce

nter

of s

atel

lite

beam

an

d su

rfac

e εm

inim

al e

leva

tio

n:

elev

atio

n ne

eded

at l

east

to c

omm

unic

ate

with

the

sate

llite

foot

prin

t

Page 10: Mobile Communications Chapter 5: Satellite Systems · mobile station still in the footprint of the satellite, but in another cell Inter satellite handover zhandover from one satellite

Pro

f. D

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ng. J

oche

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er, h

ttp://

ww

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MC

SS

025.

10

Link

bud

get o

f sat

ellit

es

Par

amet

ers

like

atte

nuat

ion

or r

ecei

ved

pow

er d

eter

min

ed b

y fo

urpa

ram

eter

s:se

ndin

g po

wer

gain

of s

endi

ng a

nten

nadi

stan

ce b

etw

een

send

er

and

rece

iver

gain

of r

ecei

ving

ant

enna

Pro

blem

sva

ryin

g st

reng

th o

f rec

eive

d si

gnal

due

to m

ultip

ath

prop

agat

ion

inte

rrup

tions

due

to s

hado

win

g of

sig

nal (

no L

OS

)P

ossi

ble

solu

tions

Link

Mar

gin

to e

limin

ate

varia

tions

in s

igna

l str

engt

h sa

telli

te d

iver

sity

(us

age

of s

ever

al v

isib

le s

atel

lites

at t

he s

ame

time)

he

lps

to u

se le

ss s

endi

ng p

ower

24

=c

fr

L: L

oss

f: ca

rrie

r fr

eque

ncy

r: d

ista

nce

c: s

peed

of l

ight

Page 11: Mobile Communications Chapter 5: Satellite Systems · mobile station still in the footprint of the satellite, but in another cell Inter satellite handover zhandover from one satellite

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MC

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025.

11

Atm

osph

eric

atte

nuat

ion

Exa

mpl

e: s

atel

lite

syst

ems

at 4

-6 G

Hz

elev

atio

nof

the

sate

llite

5°10

°20

°30

°40

°50

°

Atte

nuat

ion

of

the

sign

alin

%

1020304050

rain

abso

rptio

n

fog

abso

rptio

n

atm

osph

eric

abso

rptio

n

ε

Page 12: Mobile Communications Chapter 5: Satellite Systems · mobile station still in the footprint of the satellite, but in another cell Inter satellite handover zhandover from one satellite

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f. D

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oche

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MC

SS

025.

12

Fou

r di

ffere

nt ty

pes

of s

atel

lite

orbi

ts c

an b

e id

entif

ied

depe

ndin

g on

the

shap

e an

d di

amet

er o

f the

orb

it:G

EO

: geo

stat

iona

ry o

rbit,

ca.

360

00 k

m a

bove

ear

th s

urfa

ce

LEO

(Lo

w E

arth

Orb

it): c

a. 5

00 -

1500

km

ME

O (

Med

ium

Ear

th O

rbit)

or

ICO

(In

term

edia

te C

ircul

ar O

rbit)

: ca

. 600

0 -

2000

0 km

HE

O (

Hig

hly

Elli

ptic

al O

rbit)

elli

ptic

al o

rbits

Orb

its I

Page 13: Mobile Communications Chapter 5: Satellite Systems · mobile station still in the footprint of the satellite, but in another cell Inter satellite handover zhandover from one satellite

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MC

SS

025.

13

Orb

its II

eart

h

km35

768

1000

0

1000

LEO

(G

loba

lsta

r,Ir

dium

)

HE

O

inne

r an

d ou

ter

Van

Alle

n be

lts

ME

O (

ICO

)

GE

O (

Inm

arsa

t)

Van

-Alle

n-B

elts

:io

nize

d pa

rtic

les

2000

-60

00 k

m a

nd15

000

-30

000

kmab

ove

eart

h su

rfac

e

Page 14: Mobile Communications Chapter 5: Satellite Systems · mobile station still in the footprint of the satellite, but in another cell Inter satellite handover zhandover from one satellite

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MC

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025.

14

Geo

stat

iona

rysa

telli

tes

Orb

it 35

.786

km

dis

tanc

e to

ear

th s

urfa

ce, o

rbit

in e

quat

oria

l pla

ne

(incl

inat

ion

0°)

com

plet

e ro

tatio

n ex

actly

one

day

, sat

ellit

e is

syn

chro

nous

to e

arth

ro

tatio

nfix

ant

enna

pos

ition

s, n

o ad

just

ing

nece

ssar

ysa

telli

tes

typi

cally

hav

e a

larg

e fo

otpr

int (

up to

34%

of e

arth

sur

face

!),

ther

efor

e di

fficu

lt to

reu

se fr

eque

ncie

s ba

d el

evat

ions

in a

reas

with

latit

ude

abov

e 60

° du

e to

fixe

d po

sitio

n ab

ove

the

equa

tor

high

tran

smit

pow

er n

eede

dhi

gh la

tenc

y du

e to

long

dis

tanc

e (c

a. 2

75 m

s)

not u

sefu

l for

glo

bal c

over

age

for

smal

l mob

ile p

hone

s an

d da

ta

tran

smis

sion

, typ

ical

ly u

sed

for

radi

o an

d T

V tr

ansm

issi

on

Page 15: Mobile Communications Chapter 5: Satellite Systems · mobile station still in the footprint of the satellite, but in another cell Inter satellite handover zhandover from one satellite

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MC

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025.

15

LEO

sys

tem

s

Orb

it ca

. 500

-15

00 k

m a

bove

ear

th s

urfa

cevi

sibi

lity

of a

sat

ellit

e ca

. 10

-40

min

utes

glob

al r

adio

cov

erag

e po

ssib

le

late

ncy

com

para

ble

with

terr

estr

ial l

ong

dist

ance

co

nnec

tions

, ca.

5 -

10 m

ssm

alle

r fo

otpr

ints

, bet

ter

freq

uenc

y re

use

but n

ow h

ando

ver

nece

ssar

y fr

om o

ne s

atel

lite

to a

noth

er

man

y sa

telli

tes

nece

ssar

y fo

r gl

obal

cov

erag

e m

ore

com

plex

sys

tem

s du

e to

mov

ing

sate

llite

s

Exa

mpl

es:

Irid

ium

(st

art 1

998,

66

sate

llite

s)B

ankr

uptc

y in

200

0, d

eal w

ith U

S D

oD(f

ree

use,

sa

ving

from

“de

orbi

ting”

)

Glo

bals

tar

(sta

rt 1

999,

48

sate

llite

s)N

ot m

any

cust

omer

s (2

001:

440

00),

low

sta

nd-b

y tim

es fo

r m

obile

s

Page 16: Mobile Communications Chapter 5: Satellite Systems · mobile station still in the footprint of the satellite, but in another cell Inter satellite handover zhandover from one satellite

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MC

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025.

16

ME

O s

yste

ms

Orb

it ca

. 500

0 -

1200

0 km

abo

ve e

arth

sur

face

com

paris

on w

ith L

EO

sys

tem

s:sl

ower

mov

ing

sate

llite

s le

ss s

atel

lites

nee

ded

sim

pler

sys

tem

des

ign

for

man

y co

nnec

tions

no

hand

-ove

r ne

eded

high

er la

tenc

y, c

a. 7

0 -

80 m

shi

gher

sen

ding

pow

er n

eede

dsp

ecia

l ant

enna

s fo

r sm

all f

ootp

rints

nee

ded

Exa

mpl

e:

ICO

(In

term

edia

te C

ircul

ar O

rbit,

Inm

arsa

t) s

tart

ca.

200

0B

ankr

uptc

y, p

lann

ed jo

int v

entu

res

with

Tel

edes

ic, E

llips

o–

canc

elle

d ag

ain,

sta

rt p

lann

ed fo

r 20

03

Page 17: Mobile Communications Chapter 5: Satellite Systems · mobile station still in the footprint of the satellite, but in another cell Inter satellite handover zhandover from one satellite

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MC

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025.

17

Rou

ting

One

sol

utio

n: in

ter

sate

llite

link

s (I

SL)

redu

ced

num

ber

of g

atew

ays

need

ed

forw

ard

conn

ectio

ns o

r da

ta p

acke

ts w

ithin

the

sate

llite

net

wor

kas

long

as

pos

sibl

eon

ly o

ne u

plin

k an

d on

e do

wnl

ink

per

dire

ctio

n ne

eded

for

the

conn

ectio

n of

two

mob

ile p

hone

s P

robl

ems:

mor

e co

mpl

ex fo

cusi

ng o

f ant

enna

s be

twee

n sa

telli

tes

high

sys

tem

com

plex

ity d

ue to

mov

ing

rout

ers

high

er fu

el c

onsu

mpt

ion

thus

sho

rter

life

time

Irid

ium

and

Tel

edes

icpl

anne

d w

ith IS

LO

ther

sys

tem

s us

e ga

tew

ays

and

addi

tiona

lly te

rres

tria

l net

wor

ks

Page 18: Mobile Communications Chapter 5: Satellite Systems · mobile station still in the footprint of the satellite, but in another cell Inter satellite handover zhandover from one satellite

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MC

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025.

18

Loca

lizat

ion

of m

obile

sta

tions

Mec

hani

sms

sim

ilar

to G

SM

Gat

eway

s m

aint

ain

regi

ster

s w

ith u

ser

data

HLR

(H

ome

Loca

tion

Reg

iste

r): s

tatic

use

r da

ta

VLR

(V

isito

r Lo

catio

n R

egis

ter)

: (la

st k

now

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catio

n of

the

mob

ile s

tatio

n

SU

MR

(S

atel

lite

Use

r M

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ter)

: sa

telli

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ned

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mob

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llite

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Reg

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caliz

atio

n of

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mob

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tatio

n vi

a th

e sa

telli

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pos

ition

requ

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g us

er d

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obile

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g H

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imila

r to

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conn

ectio

n se

tup

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g th

e ap

prop

riate

sat

ellit

e

Page 19: Mobile Communications Chapter 5: Satellite Systems · mobile station still in the footprint of the satellite, but in another cell Inter satellite handover zhandover from one satellite

Pro

f. D

r.-I

ng. J

oche

nS

chill

er, h

ttp://

ww

w.jo

chen

schi

ller.

de/

MC

SS

025.

19

Han

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s

Sev

eral

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ition

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over

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ems

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pare

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cel

lula

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rres

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l mob

ile p

hone

net

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ks c

ause

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he s

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ight

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wer

late

ncy

etc.

Page 20: Mobile Communications Chapter 5: Satellite Systems · mobile station still in the footprint of the satellite, but in another cell Inter satellite handover zhandover from one satellite

Pro

f. D

r.-I

ng. J

oche

nS

chill

er, h

ttp://

ww

w.jo

chen

schi

ller.

de/

MC

SS

025.

20

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