Particle Physics: Introduction to the Standard Model ... ?· Particle Physics: Introduction to the Standard…

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  • Particle Physics: Introduction to the Standard ModelQuantum Electrodynamics (I)

    Frdric Machefertfrederic@cern.ch

    Laboratoire de lacclrateur linaire (CNRS)

    Cours de lcole Normale Suprieure24, rue Lhomond, Paris

    January 19th, 2017

    1 / 39

  • Quantum Field TheoryThe Lagrangian

    The Feynman RulesExample of processes

    Acceleration and Detection

    Part II

    Quantum Electrodynamics (I)

    2 / 39

  • Quantum Field TheoryThe Lagrangian

    The Feynman RulesExample of processes

    Acceleration and Detection

    1 Quantum Field TheoryWhy do we need quantum field theory ?Special relativity and quantum field theoryDiagram ordersA brief recipe...

    2 The Lagrangian

    3 The Feynman Rules

    4 Example of processesMoeller ScatteringBhabha

    5 Acceleration and DetectionAccelerationDetection

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  • Quantum Field TheoryThe Lagrangian

    The Feynman RulesExample of processes

    Acceleration and Detection

    Why do we need quantum field theory ?Special relativity and quantum field theoryDiagram ordersA brief recipe...

    The History

    The history

    Introduction of particles (oo)

    Particle-Wave dualism (deBroglie wave length)

    Particles are fields in a quantum field theory

    1941: Stueckelberg proposes to interpret electron lines going back intime as positrons

    end of 1940s: Feynman, Tomonaga, Schwinger et al developrenormalization theory

    anomalous magnetic moment predicted (not today)

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  • Quantum Field TheoryThe Lagrangian

    The Feynman RulesExample of processes

    Acceleration and Detection

    Why do we need quantum field theory ?Special relativity and quantum field theoryDiagram ordersA brief recipe...

    Why do we need quantum field theory ?

    from E = mc2 to quantum field theory

    The Einstein equation makes a relation between energy and mass

    E = mc2

    This means that if there is enough energy, we can create a particle with agiven mass m.However, due to conservation laws, it will most probably be necessary toproduce twice the particles mass (particle and antiparticle).Hence

    Particle number is not fixed

    The types of particles present is not fixed

    This is in direct conflict with nonrelativistic quantum mechanics and forexample the Schrdinger equation that treats a constant number of particlesof a certain type.

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  • Quantum Field TheoryThe Lagrangian

    The Feynman RulesExample of processes

    Acceleration and Detection

    Why do we need quantum field theory ?Special relativity and quantum field theoryDiagram ordersA brief recipe...

    Attempts to incorporate special relativity in Quantum mechanics

    Quantum mechanics and special relativity

    Schrdinger equation contained first order time derivative and second orderspace derivatives

    ~2

    2m2

    x2+ V = i~

    t

    Not compatible with special relativity (E2 = p2 + m2).First attempt consisted to promote the time derivative to the second order.This resulted in the Klein Gordon equation :

    1c22

    t2

    2

    x2=

    m2c2

    ~2

    But this leads to funny features:

    Negative presence probabilities,

    negative energy solutions

    Dirac solved the problems by reducing the spatial derivative power.Resulted in the Dirac equation.

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  • Quantum Field TheoryThe Lagrangian

    The Feynman RulesExample of processes

    Acceleration and Detection

    Why do we need quantum field theory ?Special relativity and quantum field theoryDiagram ordersA brief recipe...

    Quantum Field Theory in a nutshell

    e

    t

    Leading Order (LO) diagram isthe simplest diagram

    The electron is on-shell(p2 = m2e), no interactions

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  • Quantum Field TheoryThe Lagrangian

    The Feynman RulesExample of processes

    Acceleration and Detection

    Why do we need quantum field theory ?Special relativity and quantum field theoryDiagram ordersA brief recipe...

    e

    t

    NLO (next-to-leading order)diagram

    Process not allowed in classicalmechanics

    Heisenberg: Et 1 process allowed for reabsorptionafter t 1/E

    Quantum mechanics: add alldiagrams, but that would alsoinclude N = Each vertex is an interaction andeach interaction has a strength(|M|2 = 1/137)Perturbation theory withSommerfeld convergence

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  • Quantum Field TheoryThe Lagrangian

    The Feynman RulesExample of processes

    Acceleration and Detection

    Why do we need quantum field theory ?Special relativity and quantum field theoryDiagram ordersA brief recipe...

    Rough recipe for the Feynman calculations

    Process calculation

    Construct the Lagrangian of Free Fields

    Introduce interactions via the minimal substitution scheme

    Derive Feynman rules

    Construct (ALL) Feynman diagrams of the process

    Apply Feynman rules

    Some aspects are not part of these lectures, but will sketch the ideas

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  • Quantum Field TheoryThe Lagrangian

    The Feynman RulesExample of processes

    Acceleration and Detection

    Remember the particle zoo

    treat only the carrier of theinteraction

    as well as the e

    (

    uLdL

    ) (

    cLsL

    ) (

    tLbL

    )

    (

    eLeL

    ) (

    LL

    ) (

    L L

    )

    uR cR tRdR sR bReR R R

    g

    W, Z

    H

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  • Quantum Field TheoryThe Lagrangian

    The Feynman RulesExample of processes

    Acceleration and Detection

    Lagrangian field theory

    The Lagrangian and the Action

    The Lagrangian is defined by

    L = T V

    The action is the time integration of the Lagrangian, S =

    Ldt . This is afunctional: its argument is a function and it returns a number.Assuming that the Action should be minimal

    S =

    t2

    t1

    L(q, q)dt with S = 0

    (the qi(t) being the generalized coordinates)leads to the Euler-Lagrange equation

    d

    dt

    L

    qi Lqi

    = 0

    The familiar equations of motion can be obtained from this equation.

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  • Quantum Field TheoryThe Lagrangian

    The Feynman RulesExample of processes

    Acceleration and Detection

    Lagrangian field theory

    Lagrangian density

    Lagrangian formalism is now applied to fields, which are functions ofspacetime (x , t). The Lagrangian is, in the continuous case, the spaceintegration of the Lagrangian density.

    L = T V =

    Ld3x

    and the action becomes

    S =

    Ldt =

    Ld4x

    Typically,L = L(, )

    From a Lagrangian density and the Euler-Lagrange equation, equationsgoverning the evolution of particles (i.e. fields) can be derived.

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  • Quantum Field TheoryThe Lagrangian

    The Feynman RulesExample of processes

    Acceleration and Detection

    The photon

    MAXWELL equations:

    F(x) = j(x)

    F(x) = 0

    with the photon field tensor:

    F(x) = A(x) A(x)

    A being the usual vector potential,A = (, ~A) and j(x) the currentdensity.

    Fermions

    Schrdinger equation is i~t

    = H,

    with H = ~22m2 + V . H should be

    chosen to satisfy special relativy,H = c~ (i~) + mc2.i and are actually 4 4 matrices,0 = and i = iThe Dirac equation is obtained:

    (i m)(x) = 0

    leading to: (x)(i m)(x) with = 0 = T

    0

    The free Lagrangian (L0)

    L0 = 14

    F(x)F(x) + (x)(i m)(x)

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  • Quantum Field TheoryThe Lagrangian

    The Feynman RulesExample of processes

    Acceleration and Detection

    Minimal Substitution

    i i + eA(x)(x)i(x)

    (x)(i + eA(x))(x)= (x)i(x) + e(x)

    A(x)(x)

    leads to a coupling between photon and fermion fields:

    Interaction Lagrangian L

    L = jA = e(x)A(x)(x)

    the negative sign for j = e(x)(x)

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  • Quantum Field TheoryThe Lagrangian

    The Feynman RulesExample of processes

    Acceleration and Detection

    Dirac equation for adjoint spinor

    i m = 0 i() m = 0 i()() m = 0 i()() m = 0 i()() m = 0 i() m = 0i()

    + m = 0

    EM current conserved

    j = [e]

    = e() e Dirac= ime + iem Dirac adjoint= 0

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  • Quantum Field TheoryThe Lagrangian

    The Feynman RulesExample of processes

    Acceleration and Detection

    Gauge Invariance

    Invariance of the Lagrangian under local U(1) transformationsor: why should physics depend on the location ?

    A A + (x)(x) exp (ie(x))(x)

    L0 + L = L LLocal gauge invariance under a U(1) gauge symmetry (1929 Weyl)if 6= f (x) it is a global U(1) symmetry.

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  • Quantum Field TheoryThe Lagrangian

    The Feynman RulesExample of processes

    Acceleration and Detection

    U(1) Gauge invariance:

    Photon field

    F = A A= (A + ) (A + )= A A + = = A A= F

    Photon field ok

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  • Quantum Field TheoryThe Lagrangian

    The Feynman RulesExample of processes

    Acceleration and Detection

    Fermion field

    (i m)

    = 0(i m)

    exp (ie)0(i m)( exp (ie))= exp (ie)(i m)( exp (ie))= exp (ie)i() exp (ie)+ exp (ie)i exp (ie))+ exp (ie)(m) exp (ie)= i() + exp (ie)iieexp (ie) e()+ (m)= (i m) e()

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  • Quantum Field TheoryThe Lagrangian

    The Feynman RulesExample of processes

    Acceleration and Detection

    Interaction

    eA(x)= e exp (ie)(A + ) exp (ie)= e(A + )= eA + e

    ()

    Interaction term combined with fermion field (ie) okgauge invariance of the fermion field cries for the introduction of a gaugeboson!

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  • Quantum Field TheoryThe Lagrangian

    The Feynman RulesExample of processes

    Acceleration and Detection

    External lines

    initial state electron u(p)initial state positron v(p)initial state photon

    final state electron u(p)final state positron v(p)final state photon

    Internal lines and vertex

    virtual photon igk2+i

    virtual electron i 6p+mp2m2+i

    interaction(vertex) ie

    Matrix element

    |M|2 =

    fi

    TfiTfi

    Sum over final state, average over initial state

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  • Quantum Field TheoryThe Lagrangian

    The Feynman RulesExample of processes

    Acceleration and Detection

    Moeller ScatteringBhabha

    Moeller Scattering ee ee

    Simplest diagram with initial and final state of two electrons

    conserve electric charge and momentum at each vertex

    t channel only: C(e + e) = 2e 6= C() = 0p conservation at each vertex 2 diagrams q = p2 p3 6= p2 p4

    e

    e

    t

    e(p1)e(p2) e(p3)e(p4)

    e

    e

    t

    e(p1)e(p2) e(p4)e(p3)

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  • Quantum Field TheoryThe Lagrangian

    The Feynman RulesExample of processes

    Acceleration and Detection

    Moeller ScatteringBhabha

    e

    e

    Fermion arrow tip to end

    Interaction

    propagator (internal line)

    second graph p3 p4graphs fermion permutation: k = f (pi)

    Tfi = [ u(p4)(ie)u(p1)( igk2(p4p1)2 )u(p3)(ie)u(p2)

    u(p3)(ie)u(p1)( igk2(p3p1)2 )u(p4)(ie)u(p2)]

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  • Quantum Field TheoryThe Lagrangian

    The Feynman RulesExample of processes

    Acceleration and Detection

    Moeller ScatteringBhabha

    1iTfi =

    1i[ u(p4)(ie)u(p1)( ig(p4p1)2 )u(p3)(ie

    )u(p2)

    u(p3)(ie)u(p1)( ig(p3p1)2 )u(p4)(ie)u(p2)]

    = e2[ u(p4)u(p1)(

    g

    (p4p1)2 )u(p3)

    u(p2)

    u(p3)u(p1)( g(p3p1)2 )u(p4)u(p2)]

    |M|2 = fi TfiTfi

    = 14

    fi TfiTfi

    After a certain number of steps...

    |M|2 = 6422

    t2u2[(s 2m2)2(t2 + u2) + ut(4m2s + 12m4 + ut)]

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  • Quantum Field TheoryThe Lagrangian

    The Feynman RulesExample of processes

    Acceleration and Detection

    Moeller ScatteringBhabha

    d

    d= |M|2 1

    642s0 /2 (electrons) me 0

    t = 2p1p3 = 2(

    s/2

    s/2 s/4 cos ) = s/2(1 cos )u = 2p1p4 = 2(s/4 ~p1~p4) = 2(s/4 + ~p1~p3)

    = 2(s/4 + s/4 cos ) = s/2(1 + cos )dd

    = 2

    st2u2[s2(t2 + u2) + u2t2]

    = 2

    s[ s

    2

    u2+ s

    2

    t2+ 1]

    = 2

    s

    (3+cos2 )2

    sin4

    s dd

    is scale invariant: measure of the pointlikeness of a particle

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  • Quantum Field TheoryThe Lagrangian

    The Feynman RulesExample of processes

    Acceleration and Detection

    Moeller ScatteringBhabha

    Stanford-Princeton Storage ring

    2e beams

    s = 556MeV

    limited detector acceptance

    differential cross sectionmeasurement and prediction

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  • Quantum Field TheoryThe Lagrangian

    The Feynman RulesExample of processes

    Acceleration and Detection

    Moeller ScatteringBhabha

    Typical t channel = 0 d/d Extremely good agreementbetween the measurement andthe theory prediction

    ee colliders discontinued(1971)

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  • Quantum Field TheoryThe Lagrangian

    The Feynman RulesExample of processes

    Acceleration and Detection

    Moeller ScatteringBhabha

    The Bhabha Process

    Homi Bhabha studied in the 1930s in Great Britain, worked in Indiaafterwards

    e

    e+

    e

    e+

    t

    e

    e+

    t

    d

    d=

    2

    16s(3 + cos2 )2

    sin4 2

    0 t channel: sin4(/2)s channel: 1 + cos2

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  • Quantum Field TheoryThe Lagrangian

    The Feynman RulesExample of processes

    Acceleration and Detection

    Moeller ScatteringBhabha

    PETRA e+e colliders 35GeV

    JADE, TASSO, CELLO

    total cross section

    differential cross section

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  • Quantum Field TheoryThe Lagrangian

    The Feynman RulesExample of processes

    Acceleration and Detection

    Moeller ScatteringBhabha

    Excellent agreement with QED

    Errors reflect statistics

    QED deviation : s/2 < 5% withs = 352GeV2

    (~c)/ = (0.197GeV fm)/ 0.13 103fmN =

    Ldt Today Bhabha is a luminositymeasurement

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  • Quantum Field TheoryThe Lagrangian

    The Feynman RulesExample of processes

    Acceleration and Detection

    AccelerationDetection

    Electrical field

    acceleration

    charge times potential difference

    typical unit: eV

    Magnetic field

    no acceleration

    B field unit: [B] = Vsm2

    force on charged particle inmagnetic field:F = q~v ~B = q p

    mB

    centrifugal force:F = mv2/r = p2/(m r)R = p/(qBc) (c because ofnatural units)

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  • Quantum Field TheoryThe Lagrangian

    The Feynman RulesExample of processes

    Acceleration and Detection

    AccelerationDetection

    Acceleration

    strong fields difficult to achieve(breakdown)

    accelerate successively

    linear assembly: distancebetween potential diffs mustincrease

    circular assembly: severalrotations possible

    Phase focussing

    particle sees nominal (notmaximal) field

    early particle: less field, lessacceleration

    late particle: more field, strongeracceleration

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  • Quantum Field TheoryThe Lagrangian

    The Feynman RulesExample of processes

    Acceleration and Detection

    AccelerationDetection

    LEP/LHC

    circular tunnel 28kmcircumferenceelectron+positron: 210GeV

    weak fieldstrong cavitiesenergy loss per turn: 6GeV( E4/R)

    LHC proton-proton (14TeV)strong field 10Tenergy loss per turn: 500keV

    Lepton collider cavities

    LEP: up to 10MV/m

    ILC: 35-40 MV/m

    supraconducting (THe)

    Magnetic field LHC

    R = 7000GeV0.3109m/s10T 1e

    = 7000GeV0.3109m/s10Vs/m2109Ge

    2kmRtrue 4.5km

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  • Quantum Field TheoryThe Lagrangian

    The Feynman RulesExample of processes

    Acceleration and Detection

    AccelerationDetection

    Instantaneous Luminosity

    L N2kb fF

    4

    (1011)2280040MHzF

    415m

    LHC: 1034cm2s1

    Integrated Luminosity

    N =

    Ldt

    LHC: 25fb1 per experimentLinac Booster PS SPS50 1.4 25 450MeV GeV GeV GeV

    7TeV per beam

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  • Quantum Field TheoryThe Lagrangian

    The Feynman RulesExample of processes

    Acceleration and Detection

    AccelerationDetection

    LC the future?

    linear: no synchrotron radiation

    40km

    polarization

    luminosity

    250GeV to 1TeV (3TeV: CLIC)

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  • Quantum Field TheoryThe Lagrangian

    The Feynman RulesExample of processes

    Acceleration and Detection

    AccelerationDetection

    Detection at high energies

    a + b X neutral + chargedparticles long-lived wrt detectorvolume

    Tracker: charged particlemomenta

    Calorimeter: neutral and chargedparticles

    Tracker

    measure points in B-field

    reconstruct sagitta

    highest precision: silicon (dense, 15m)lower precision: TPC (gazeous)

    Electromagnetic calorimeter

    e + A e + + A e+e etcshower

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  • Quantum Field TheoryThe Lagrangian

    The Feynman RulesExample of processes

    Acceleration and Detection

    AccelerationDetection

    ATLAS

    Silicon tracking (100M channels2T)

    Calorimeter (100k)

    Muon chambers (toroid)

    Experimental Challenges

    bunches every 8m

    25ns between crossings (fastreadout)

    order 20 interactions per crossing

    trigger: 40MHz to 200Hz

    alignment

    calibration

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  • Quantum Field TheoryThe Lagrangian

    The Feynman RulesExample of processes

    Acceleration and Detection

    AccelerationDetection

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  • Quantum Field TheoryThe Lagrangian

    The Feynman RulesExample of processes

    Acceleration and Detection

    AccelerationDetection

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  • Quantum Field TheoryThe Lagrangian

    The Feynman RulesExample of processes

    Acceleration and Detection

    AccelerationDetection

    A calorimeter tracker for the future?

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    Quantum Electrodynamics (I)Quantum Field TheoryWhy do we need quantum field theory ?Special relativity and quantum field theoryDiagram ordersA brief recipe...

    The LagrangianThe Feynman RulesExample of processesMoeller ScatteringBhabha

    Acceleration and DetectionAccelerationDetection