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  • Chapter 3

    Introduction to WCDMA

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  • 3.2 Summary of the Main Parameters in WCDMA3.3 Spreading and Despreading3.4 Multipath Radio Channels and Rake Reception3.5 Power Control3.6 Softer and Soft Handovers

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  • (1) Multiple access methodWCDMA is a wideband Direct-Sequence Code Division Multiple Access (DS-CDMA) systemuser information bits are spread over a wide bandwidth by multiplying user data with quasi-random bits (called chips) derived from CDMA spreading codesin order to support very high bit rates (up to 2Mbps), the use of a variable spreading factor and multicode connections is supported

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  • (2) Duplexing methodWCDMA supports both FDD and TDD modes of operationFrequency Division Duplex (FDD)separate 5 MHz carrier frequencies are used for uplink and downlink, respectivelyTime Division Duplex (TDD)only one 5 MHz is timeshared between uplink and downlink

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  • (3) Basic station synchronizationWCDMA supports the operation of asynchronous base stationsno need for a global time reference such as a GPSdeployment of indoor and micro base stations is easier when no GPS signal needs to be received

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  • (4) Chip ratechip rate of 3.84 Mcps leads to a carrier bandwidth (channel bandwidth) of approximately 5 MHzchipthe length of time to transmit either a "0" or a "1" in a binary pulse codechip ratenumber of chips per secondDS-CDMA systems with a bandwidth of about 1 MHz (narrowband CDMA systems)wide carrier bandwidth of WCDMA supports high user data rates

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  • (5) Frame length & slot lengthframe length10ms (1 frame length = 38400 chips)slot length15 slots /frame (1 slot length = 2560 chips)

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  • (6) Service multiplexingmultiple services with different quality of service requirements multiplexed on one connection

  • (7) Multirate conceptuse a variable spreading factor and multicode to support very high bit rates (up to 2 Mbps)multicodein multicode CDMA systems, each user can be provided with multiple spreading codes of fixed length, depending on users' rate requestsmotivations for multicode CDMAincrease the information rate over a given spread bandwidthallow for the flexibility of multiple data rates

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  • (8) DetectionWCDMA employs coherent detection () on uplink and downlink based on the use of pilot symbols () or common pilot ()coherent detection (coherent demodulation)a method of recovering the original signal that requires an exactly same carrier frequency and phase (propagation delay causes carrier-phase offset) as those used in the transmitting endthe received signal is mixed, in some type of nonlinear device, with a signal from a local oscillator, to produce an intermediate frequency, from which the modulating signal is recovered (detected)

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  • use of coherent detection on uplink will result in an overall increase of coverage and capacity on the uplink

    *Oscillator

  • (9) Multiuser detection and smart antennassupported by the standarddeployed by network operator as a system option to increase capacity and/or coverage

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  • Smart antennas (also known as adaptive array antennas, multiple antennas and recently MIMO)antenna arrays with smart signal processing algorithms used to identify spatial signal signature such as the direction of arrival (DOA) of the signal, and use it to calculate beamforming vectors, to track and locate the antenna beam on the mobile/targetthe antenna could optionally be any sensorsmart antenna techniques are used notably in acoustic () signal processing, track and scan RADAR, radio astronomy () and radio telescopes (), and mostly in cellular systems like W-CDMA and UMTS

  • WCDMA supports highly variable user data rates, in other words the concept of obtaining Bandwidth on Demand (BoD)the user data rate is kept constant during each 10 ms framehowever, the data capacity among users can change from frame to framethis fast radio capacity allocation will typically be controlled by the network to achieve optimum throughput for packet data services

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  • HandoversWCDMA is designed to be deployed in conjunction with GSMhandovers between GSM and WCDMA are supported to leverage GSM coverage

  • Spread-spectrum transmission a technique in which the users original signal is transformed into another form that occupies a larger bandwidth than the original signal would normally needthe original data sequence is binary multiplied with a spreading code that typically has a much larger bandwidth than the original signalthe bits in the spreading code are called chips to differentiate them from the bits in the data sequence, which are called symbols

  • each user has its own spreading codethe identical code is used in both transformations on each end of the radio channelspreading the original signal to produce a wideband signaldespreading the wideband signal back to the original narrowband signal

  • the ratio between the transmission bandwidth and the original bandwidth is called the processing gainalso known as the spreading factor (SF)this ratio simply means how many chips are used to spread one data symbolin the UTRAN, the spreading-factor values can be between 4 and 512in the TDD mode also SF=1 is allowedthe lower the spreading factor, the more payload data a signal can convey on the radio interface

  • 1 symbol = 8 chips

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  • Spreading and despreading operationuser data is assumed to be a BPSK-modulated (Binary Phase Shift Keying) bit sequence of rate Ruser data bits are assumed the values of 1 or -1spreading operationthe multiplication of each user data bit with a sequence of 8 code bits, called chips (the spreading factor is 8)the resulting spread data is at a rate of 8 Rdespreading operationmultiply the spread user data/chip sequence, bit duration by bit duration, with the very same 8 code chips as we used during the spreading of these bitsas shown, the original user bit sequence has been recovered perfectly

  • the increase of the signaling rate by a factor of 8 corresponds to a widening (by a factor of 8) of the occupied spectrum of the spread user data signaldespreading restores a bandwidth proportional to R for the signal

  • Rake ReceiverRake receivera radio receiver designed to counter the effects of multipath fadinguses several "sub-receivers" (called fingers) each delayed slightly , that is, several correlators each assigned to a different multipath componenteach component is decoded independently, but at a later stage combined in order to make the most use of the different transmission characteristics of each transmission path

    *RakeCounter Tune in

  • the digital section of a CDMA receiver which permits the phone (or cell) to separate out the relevant signal from all the other signalscan receive multiple signal sources and add them together using multiple fingersRake receivers are common in a wide variety of radio devices including mobile phones and wireless LAN equipment

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  • RF: Radio Frequency

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  • Digitized input samplesreceived from RF (Radio Frequency) front-end circuitry in the form of I and Q branches Code generators and correlatorperform the despreading and integration to user data symbolsChannel estimator and phase rotatorchannel estimator uses the pilot symbols [] for estimating the channel state which will then be removed by the phase rotator from the received symbols

    Phase rotator: a device used in radio astronomy [] to adjust the phase of an incoming signal.

    *RF (Radio Frequency )CircuitryPilot symbol

  • Delay equliserthe delay is compensated for the difference in the arrival times of the symbols in each fingerRake combinersums the channel compensated symbols, thereby providing multipath diversity against fading

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  • Matched filterused for determining and updating the current multipath delay profile of the channelthis measured and possibly averaged multipath delay profile is then used to assign the Rake fingers to the largest peaks

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  • Fast power control is in particular on the uplinkwithout it, a single overpowered mobile could block a whole cell

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  • Power control in WCDMAopen-loop power controlclose-loop power controlinner-loop power controlouter-loop power control

  • Open loop power control in WCDMAattempt to make a rough estimation of path loss by measuring downlink beacon signalproblemfar too inaccuratefast fading is essentially uncorrelated between uplink and downlink due to large frequency separation of uplink and downlink band of WCDMA FDD modeopen-loop power control is used in WCDMA to provide a coarse initial power setting of MS at the beginning of a connection

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  • Inner-loop power control in WCDMA uplinkBS performs frequent estimates of the received Signal-to-Interference Ratio (SIR) and compares it to a target SIRif the measured SIR is higher than the target SIR, BS will command MS to lower the powerif SIR is too low, it will command MS to increase its power

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  • measurecommandreact cycleexecuted at a rate of 1500 times per second (1.5 kHz) for each MS faster than any significant change of path loss could possibly happenfaster than the fast Rayleigh fading speed for low to moderate mobile speedsinner-loop power controlprevent any power imbalance among all the uplink signals received at BS

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  • Inner-loop power control in WCDMA downlinkadopt the same techniques as those used in uplinkoperate at a rate of 1500 times per secondno nearfar problem due to one cell to many mobiles scenario

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  • downlink closed-loop power controlprovide a marginal amount of ad