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Le libre accès : enjeux et positionnement du débat

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Intervention au symposium du CRELA à Nancy

Text of Le libre accès : enjeux et positionnement du débat

Le libre accs aux publications scientifiques Le point sur la situation

Le libre accs : enjeux et positionnement du dbat

Pierre Mounier EHESS - OpenEdition

Symposium CRELA 2013 - Nancy

O en sommes-nous ?

Ltat du dbat en France

France : une position en 7 points

1) Dvelopper l'Open Access Green en engageant, dans le cadre de BSN, une concertation sur les dures d'embargos. Ces embargos ont vocation tre diffrencis selon les disciplines. Oui au principe d'une dure d'embargo sur toutes les publications scientifiques finances sur fonds publics, mais avec deux prcisions. La premire c'est qu'elle doit concerner les textes scientifiques au sens strict, et ne pas dborder sur ceux qui nourrissent le dbat d'ides auprs d'un public plus large. La seconde, c'est que ces dures soient adaptes aux spcificits des disciplines et de leur conomie ditoriale. Cette concertation sera ouverte sans dlai avec les diteurs sur ce sujet.2) Accompagner l'volution de l'Open Access Gold pour les communauts qui font ce choix, par la ngociation des licences et le contrle des cots. La mutation vers ce nouveau modle suppose une cohsion et une dtermination nationale des tablissements. Cette voie doit galement s'accompagner d'une part plus importante du gold institutionnel.3) Promouvoir le dveloppement d'une troisime voie innovante et durable, qu'on appellera la Platinum Road. Cette voie consiste dvelopper une dition en libre accs qui permette aux auteurs et aux lecteurs d'accder la publication scientifique sans paiement. Il s'agit de promouvoir une alliance forte entre tous les acteurs de l'dition scientifique, chercheurs, diteurs, bibliothques, plateformes, sur la base de modles conomiques hybrides, alliant investissements publics sur des infrastructures et commercialisation de services haute valeur ajoute. C'est la voie la moins contraignante pour les auteurs et les lecteurs.4) Optimiser la plateforme HAL, comme je l'ai dit, en incitant plus fortement les chercheurs dposer les publications dans l'archive ouverte nationale, en lien avec les archives ouvertes institutionnelles.5) Proposer aux chercheurs-auteurs un modle national de contrat de publication conforme au respect du droit d'auteur.6) Engager une rflexion sur la place des productions scientifiques dans les modes d'valuation de la recherche. Je souhaite m'appuyer, pour mener cette rflexion, sur le rapport que l'Acadmie des sciences a consacr la bibliomtrie. Cela permettra de rendre plus crdibles les publications, et de rnover le lien entre sciences et socit.7) Initier un travail en commun avec les diteurs nationaux pour soutenir leurs actions l'international, je pense notamment l'aide la traduction des co-ditions, et prserver un minimum de diversit ditoriale.

Mise en contexte

Green : dpt par les chercheurs de leurs publications en archives ouvertes

Le commencementPaul Ginsparg et ArXiv (1991)

Source : Registry or Open Access Repositories (U. Southampton)

Gold : revues en libre accs (souvent en auteur-payeur)

Un Nobel entre dans la bataileHarold Varmus et Plos (2001)

YearAnnual SubmissionsAnnual Publications% of Annual PubMed20072,4971,2310.16%20084,4012,7230.34%20096,7344,3100.52%201013,5676,7840.7%2011>22,000*>12,000*~1.5%*

Source : PLoS ONE and the rise of the Open Access Mega Journal

Peter Binfield

La rue vers lor

Oxford open

Wolters Kluwer

SpringerOpen

Elsevier Open Access

Wiley Open Access

Taylor and Francis

etc.

28

En fait, cest plus compliqu

Hybrid journals...

Gold Journals.

Article processing charge

Platinum (Diamond) journals..

Fully funded

Freemium

Paywall journals ..

Moving wall

Fully restricted

Flat charge

Double dipping ?

Platinum (Diamond) : revues en libre accs sans paiement par lauteur

Vers une politique de libre accs ?

Engagements collectifs :Dclarations de Budapest (2002), Bethesda (2003) et Berlin (2003)

Dclaration de Budapest : 6000 signataires

Dclaration de Berlin: 344 institutions signataires

Dont lUniversit de Provence en 2009

Dclaration de Bethesda

Le/les auteur(s) ainsi que les titulaires du droit dauteur accordent tous les utilisateurs un droit daccs gratuit, irrvocable, mondial et perptuel et leur concdent une licence leur permettant de copier, utiliser, distribuer, transmettre et visualiser publiquement luvre et dutiliser cette uvre pour la ralisation et la distribution duvres drives, sous quelque format lectronique que ce soit et dans un but raisonnable, et ce condition den indiquer correctement lauteur

Dclaration de Budapest

Une tradition ancienne et une technologie nouvelle ont converg pour rendre possible un bienfait public sans prcdent. La tradition ancienne est la volont des scientifiques et universitaires de publier sans rtribution les fruits de leur recherche dans des revues savantes, pour lamour de la recherche et de la connaissance. La nouvelle technologie est lInternet. Le bienfait public quelles rendent possible est la diffusion lectronique lchelle mondiale de la littrature des revues comit de lecture avec accs compltement gratuit et sans restriction tous les scientifiques, savants, enseignants, tudiants et autres esprits curieux. Supprimer les obstacles restreignant laccs cette littrature va acclrer la recherche enrichir lenseignement, partager le savoir des riches avec les pauvres et le savoir des pauvres avec les riches, rendre cette littrature son potentiel dutilit, et jeter les fondements de lunification de lhumanit travers un dialogue intellectuel, et une qute du savoir communs.

US

allemagne

uk

Taking all these factors into account, our best estimate is that achieving a significant and sustainable increase in access, making best use of all three mechanisms, would require an additional 50-60m a year in expenditure from the HE sector: 38m on publishing in open access journals, 10m on extensions to licences for the HE and health sectors and 3-5m on repositories, plus one-off transition costs of 5m.

[] Indeed, we believe meeting the costs of transition is essential in order to manage in an ordered way the move from a research communications system which is becoming increasingly unsustainable as a result of the economic, technological and social changes we have highlighted. While any estimates of the benefits that will accrue to the UK economy and society are similarly subject to much uncertainty, it is clear that the benefits will be real and substantial. In short, we believe that the investments necessary to improve the current research communications system will yield significant returns in improving the efficiency of research, and in enhancing its impact for the benefit of everyone in the UK.

Too big to work? : la question des cots de la transition

June 2012 : Finch report evaluated the transition cost to 50-60 million a year on top of 175 million spent on subscriptions.

RCUK estimated its needs to 100 millions in the next 5 years to cover APC costs

Sept. 2013 UK House of Commons report : At a time when the budgets of research organisations and HEIs are under great pressure, it is unacceptable that the Government has issued, without public consultation, an open access policy that will require considerable subsidy from research budgets in order to maintain journal subscriptions and cover APCs [] We are concerned that the expectation appears to be that universities and research organisations will fund the balance of APCs and open access costs from their own reserves.

EU

Agences de financement

0

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

3500

Q1 2007Q2 2007Q3 2007Q4 2007Q1 2008Q2 2008Q3 2008Q4 2008Q1 2009Q2 2009Q3 2009Q4 2009Q1 2010Q2 2010Q3 2010Q4 2010Q1 2011Q2 2011

Chart5Q1 2007Q2 2007Q3 2007Q4 2007Q1 2008Q2 2008Q3 2008Q4 2008Q1 2009Q2 2009Q3 2009Q4 2009Q1 2010Q2 2010Q3 2010Q4 2010Q1 2011Q2 2011
ONE with an IF
200
240
383
408
498
665
761
797
920
1064
1158
1262
1403
1484
1692
2205
2740
3300
Sheet1TOTAL Published Papers:2002403834084986657617979201,0641,1581,2621,4031,4841,6921,8271,9622,0973,2323,5675,4175,8779,17712,67217,56722,79727,40733,17238,93845,01951,54557,92565,29772,75681,27689,08998,230107,889117,570127,713137,359147,107157,010166,926176,849186,910197,082207,257217,464227,743238,047248,399258,732268,992279,252289,51245Q1Q2Q3Q4Q1Q2Q3Q4Q1Q2Q3Q4Q1Q2Q3Q4Q1Q2Q3Q4Q1Q2Q3Q4Q1Q2Q3Q4Q1Q2Q3Q4Q1Q2Q3Q4Q1Q2Q3Q4Q1Q2Q3Q4Q1Q2Q3Q4Q1Q2Q3Q4Q1Q2Q3Q420072007200720072008200820082008200920092009200920102010201020102011201120112011201220122012201220132013201320132014201420142014201520152015201520162016201620162017201720172017201820182018201820192019201920192020202020202020ONE with an IF20024038340849866576179792010641158126214031484169222052740330039004500510057006300690075008100870093009900105001110011700123001290013500141001470015300159001650017100177001830018900195002010020700213002190022500231002370024300249002550026100ONE with no IF200240383408498665761797920106411581262140314841692182719622097223223672502263727722907304231773312344735823717385239874122425743924527466247974932506752025337547256075742587760126147628264176552668768226957709272270.0136842105Launch of the ClonesSAGE OPEN20024038340849866576179792010641158126214031484169218271962209722322367250226372772290730423177331234473582371738523987412242574392452746624797NATURE20024038340849866576179792010641158126214031484169218271962209722322367250226372772290730423177331234473582371738523987412242574392452746624797AIP20024038340849866576179792010641158126214031484169218271962209722322367250226372772290730423177331234473582371738523987412242574392452746624797APS (probably not a clone but who knows)20024038340849866576179792010641158126214031484169218271962209722322367250226372772290730423177331234473582371738523987412242574392452746624797G320024038340849866576179792010641158126214031484169218271962209722322367250226372772290730423177331234473582371738523987412242574392452746624797OPEN BIOLOGY (probably not a clone but who knows)200240383408498665761797920106411581262140314841692182719622097223223672502263727722907304231773312344735823717385239874122425743924527BIOLOGY OPEN200240383408498665761797920106411581262140314841692182719622097223223672502263727722907304231773312344735823717385239874122425743924527BMJ OPEN200240383408498665761797920106411581262140314841692182719622097223223672502263727722907304231773312344735823717385239874122425743924527Cell Reports200240383408498665761797920106411581262140314841692182719622097223223672502263727722907304231773312344735823717385239874122425743924527Another one2002403834084986657617979201064115812621403148416921827196220972232236725022637277229073042317733123447358237173852398741224257439245272002403834084986657617979201064115812621403148416921827196220972232236725022637277229073042317733123447358237173852398741224257200240383408498665761797920106411581262140314841692182719622097223223672502263727722907304231773312344735823717385239874122425720024038340849866576179792010641158126214031484169218271962209722322367250226372772290730423177331234473582371738523987412242572002403834084986657617979201064115812621403148416921827196220972232236725022637277229073042317733123447358237173852398741224257200240383408498665761797920106411581262140314841692182719622097223223672502263727722907304231773312344735823717385239874122425720024038340849866576179792010641158126214031484169218271962209722322367250226372772290730423177331234473582371738523987412242572002403834084986657617979201064115812621403148416921827196220972232236725022637277229073042317733123447358237173852398741224257200240383408498665761797920106411581262140314841692182719622097223223672502263727722907304231773312344735823717385239874122425720024038340849866576179792010641158126214031484169218271962209722322367250226372772290730423177331234473582371738523987412242572002403834084986657617979201064115812621403148416921827196220972232236725022637277229073042317733123447358237173852398741224257200240383408498665761797920106411581262140314841692182719622097223223672502263727722907304231773312344735823717385239874122200240383408498665761797920106411581262140314841692182719622097223223672502263727722907304231773312344735823717385239874122200240383408498665761797920106411581262140314841692182719622097223223672502263727722907304231773312344735823717385239874122200240383408498665761797920106411581262140314841692182719622097223223672502263727722907304231773312344735823717385239874122200240383408498665761797920106411581262140314841692182719622097223223672502263727722907304231773312344735823717385239874122200240383408498665761797920106411581262140314841692182719622097223223672502263727722907304231773312344735823717385239874122200240383408498665761797920106411581262140314841692182719622097223223672502263727722907304231773312344735823717385239874122200240383408498665761797920106411581262140314841692182719622097223223672502263727722907304231773312344735823717385239874122200240383408498665761797920106411581262140314841692182719622097223223672502263727722907304231773312344735823717385239874122200240383408498665761797920106411581262140314841692182719622097223223672502263727722907304231773312344735823717385239874122200240383408498665761797920106411581262140314841692182719622097223223672502263727722907304231773312344735823717385239872002403834084986657617979201064115812621403148416921827196220972232236725022637277229073042317733123447358237173852398720024038340849866576179792010641158126214031484169218271962209722322367250226372772290730423177331234473582371738523987200240383408498665761797920106411581262140314841692182719622097223223672502263727722907304231773312344735823717385239872002403834084986657617979201064115812621403148416921827196220972232236725022637277229073042317733123447358237173852398720024038340849866576179792010641158126214031484169218271962209722322367250226372772290730423177331234473582371738523987200240383408498665761797920106411581262140314841692182719622097223223672502263727722907304231773312344735823717385239872002403834084986657617979201064115812621403148416921827196220972232236725022637277229073042317733123447358237173852398720024038340849866576179792010641158126214031484169218271962209722322367250226372772290730423177331234473582371738523987200240383408498665761797920106411581262140314841692182719622097223223672502263727722907304231773312344735823717385239872002403834084986657617979201064115812621403148416921827196220972232236725022637277229073042317733123447358237173852200240383408498665761797920106411581262140314841692182719622097223223672502263727722907304231773312344735823717385220024038340849866576179792010641158126214031484169218271962209722322367250226372772290730423177331234473582371738522002403834084986657617979201064115812621403148416921827196220972232236725022637277229073042317733123447358237173852200240383408498665761797920106411581262140314841692182719622097223223672502263727722907304231773312344735823717385220024038340849866576179792010641158126214031484169218271962209722322367250226372772290730423177331234473582371738522002403834084986657617979201064115812621403148416921827196220972232236725022637277229073042317733123447358237173852200240383408498665761797920106411581262140314841692182719622097223223672502263727722907304231773312344735823717385220024038340849866576179792010641158126214031484169218271962209722322367250226372772290730423177331234473582371738522002403834084986657617979201064115812621403148416921827196220972232236725022637277229073042317733123447358237173852200240383408498665761797920106411581262140314841692182719622097223223672502263727722907304231773312344735823717200240383408498665761797920106411581262140314841692182719622097223223672502263727722907304231773312344735823717200240383408498665761797920106411581262140314841692182719622097223223672502263727722907304231773312344735822002403834084986657617979201064115812621403148416921827196220972232236725022637277229073042317733123447358220024038340849866576179792010641158126214031484169218271962209722322367250226372772290730423177331234472002403834084986657617979201064115812621403148416921827196220972232236725022637277229073042317733123447200240383408498665761797920106411581262140314841692182719622097223223672502263727722907304231773312200240383408498665761797920106411581262140314841692182719622097223223672502263727722907304231773312200240383408498665761797920106411581262140314841692182719622097223223672502263727722907304231772002403834084986657617979201064115812621403148416921827196220972232236725022637277229073042317720024038340849866576179792010641158126214031484169218271962209722322367250226372772290730422002403834084986657617979201064115812621403148416921827196220972232236725022637277229073042200240383408498665761797920106411581262140314841692182719622097223223672502263727722907200240383408498665761797920106411581262140314841692182719622097223223672502263727722907200240383408498665761797920106411581262140314841692182719622097223223672502263727722002403834084986657617979201064115812621403148416921827196220972232236725022637277220024038340849866576179792010641158126214031484169218271962209722322367250226372002403834084986657617979201064115812621403148416921827196220972232236725022637200240383408498665761797920106411581262140314841692182719622097223223672502200240383408498665761797920106411581262140314841692182719622097223223672502200240383408498665761797920106411581262140314841692182719622097223223672002403834084986657617979201064115812621403148416921827196220972232236720024038340849866576179792010641158126214031484169218271962209722322002403834084986657617979201064115812621403148416921827196220972232200240383408498665761797920106411581262140314841692182719622097Total2002403834084986657617979201064115812621403148416922205274033004900570080158940127051566518825245202808032275370404103544880492555459558975642106890074445802308592091245
Sheet1200240383408498665761797920106411581262140314841692220527403300390045005100570063006900750081008700930010000
Sheet220024038340849866576179792010641158126214031484169218271962209722322367250226372772290730423177331234473582
Sheet320020024024038338340840849849866566576176179779792092010641064115811581262126214031403148414841692169222051827274019623300209739002232450023675100250257002637630027726900290775003042810031778700331293003447100003582
Sheet4TOTAL Published Papers:200240383408498665761797920106411581262140314841692182719622097333236875108.554818068.511104.515056.51907123006.527923.532544.53731242691.547969.554232601876684773307808308875996527.5104734112685.5120757.5128777136746144870.5153116161452169713.5177978186382.5194793.5203282.521168922005922842923679900000000000000000PLoS ONE publications per quarter since launchQ1 2007Q2 2007Q3 2007Q4 2007Q1 2008Q2 2008Q3 2008Q4 2008Q1 2009Q2 2009Q3 2009Q4 2009Q1 2010Q2 2010Q3 2010Q4 2010Q1 2011Q2 2011Q3 2011Q4 2011Q1 2012Q2 2012Q3 2012Q4 2012Q1 2013Q2 2013Q3 2013Q4 2013Q1 2014Q2 2014Q3 2014Q4 2014Q1 2015Q2 2015Q3 2015Q4 2015Q1 2016Q2 2016Q3 2016Q4 2016Q1 2017Q2 2017Q3 2017Q4 2017Q1 2018Q2 2018Q3 2018Q4 2018Q1 2019Q2 2019Q3 2019Q4 2019Q1 2020Q2 2020Q3 2020Q4 2020ONE with an IF200240383408498665761797920106411581262140314841692220527403300390045005100570063006900750081008700930099001050011100117001230012900135001410014700153001590016500171001770018300189001950020100207002130021900225002310023700243002490025500261000000000000000000002007200720072007200820082008200820092009200920092010201020102010201120112011201120122012201220122013201320132013201420142014201420152015201520152016201620162016201720172017201720182018201820182019201920192019202020202020202000000000000000000ONE with an IF2002403834084986657617979201064115812621403148416922205274033003900450051005700630069007500810087009300990010500111001170012300129001350014100147001530015900165001710017700183001890019500201002070021300219002250023100237002430024900255002610000000000000000000ONE with no IF2002403834084986657617979201064115812621403148416921827196220972232236725022637277229073042317733123447358237173852398741224257439245274662479749325067520253375472560757425877601261476282641765526687682269577092722700000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000.0136842105000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000Launch of the Clones000000000000SAGE 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Sheet4Q1 2011Q2 2011Q3 2011Q4 2011Q1 2012Q2 2012Q3 2012Q4 2012Q1 2013Q2 2013Q3 2013Q4 2013Q1 2014Q2 2014Q3 2014Q4 2014Q1 2015Q2 2015Q3 2015Q4 2015Q1 2016Q2 2016Q3 2016Q4 2016
1962
2097
3332
3687
5108.5
5481
8068.5
11104.5
15056.5
19071
23006.5
27923.5
32544.5
37312
42691.5
47969.5
54232
60187
66847
73307
80830
88759
96527.5
104734
Q1 2011Q2 2011Q3 2011Q4 2011Q1 2012Q2 2012Q3 2012Q4 2012Q1 2013Q2 2013Q3 2013Q4 2013Q1 2014Q2 2014Q3 2014Q4 2014Q1 2015Q2 2015Q3 2015Q4 2015Q1 2016Q2 2016Q3 2016Q4 2016
Publications per Quarter in OA Megajournals
1962
2097
3332
3687
5108.5
5481
8068.5
11104.5
15056.5
19071
23006.5
27923.5
32544.5
37312
42691.5
47969.5
54232
60187
66847
73307
80830
88759
96527.5
104734
ONE with an IF
YearAnnual SubmissionsAnnual Publications% of Annual PubMed20072,4971,2310.1620084,4012,7230.3420096,7344,3100.52201013,5676,784201126,00013,000508800
0.52%**
4310**
6619**
2009**
0.34%
2723
4401
2008
0.16%
1231
2497
2007
0.02%
138
473
2006*
% of Annual PubMed
Annual Publications
Annual Submissions
Year