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Les modèles économiques du libre accès

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  • Les modles conomiques du libre accs

    Green, gold : qui paie? et autres questions

    oct. 2015 - Auteur : Frdrique Flamerie

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/fr/

  • Programme

  • Programme

    1. Pourquoi le libre accs?

    2. Les modles conomiques : green, gold, qui paie? - et autres questions

    Green et gold : les 2 voies du libre accs

    Gold open access

    Green open access

    3. Perspectives

  • 1. Pourquoi le libre accs?

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L5rVH1KGBCY

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L5rVH1KGBCY

  • Cot de la [email protected] pour lUPMC + de 2 000 000 /an Pour la France : env. 100 000 000/an

    Pourquoi le libre accs?

    http://www.slideshare.net/brembs/whats-wrong-with-scholarly-publishing-today-ii

  • 4 diteurs en position dominante, dont la marge bnficiaire oscille entre 30 et 40%

    Nb : sont considrs les dpts dition scientifique des groupes

    Chiffre daffaires

    Nombre de revues publies

    Elsevier 2126 M (2013)

    + de 2000 dont 1600 indexes dans le Web of Science

    Springer 600 M (2011)

    + de 2000 dont 1469 indexes dans le Web of Science

    Wiley-Blackwell 804,7 M (2011)

    + de 1500 dont 1156 indexes dans le Web of Science

    Informa (Taylor & Francis et Routledge)

    367 M (2013)

    + de 1600 dont 748 indexes dans le Web of Science

    Sources : Libre accs linformation scientifique et technique, Les grands diteurs scientifiques dveloppent rapidement leurs catalogues de revues en Gold Open Access , 19/12/2012 The Imaginary Journal of Poetic Economics

    Pourquoi le libre accs?

    http://openaccess.inist.fr/?Les-grands-editeurs-scientifiqueshttp://openaccess.inist.fr/?Les-grands-editeurs-scientifiqueshttp://openaccess.inist.fr/?Les-grands-editeurs-scientifiqueshttp://openaccess.inist.fr/?Les-grands-editeurs-scientifiqueshttp://openaccess.inist.fr/?Les-grands-editeurs-scientifiqueshttp://openaccess.inist.fr/?Les-grands-editeurs-scientifiqueshttp://poeticeconomics.blogspot.fr/

  • Avis du Comit dthique au CNRS sur le libre accs aux publications scientifiques ( open access ) du 29 juin 2012, p. 4. Disponible sur : http://www.cnrs.fr/comets/IMG/pdf/007-avis-oa-120629.pdf

    Le transfert du droit de lauteur par abandon total de ses droits patrimoniaux au profit des maisons ddition bloque la rutilisation automatique de ses uvres sur dautres supports ou dans de futures compilations et notamment le droit pour l'auteur de pouvoir rutiliser partiellement le matriau qu'il a soumis (utilisation des figures par exemple), et le droit de pouvoir dposer le texte complet sur une archive ouverte, qu'elle soit disciplinaire, institutionnelle ou nationale.

    Pourquoi le libre accs?

  • Jonathan A. Eisen And this is when I experienced the horror of closed-access publishing. For unlike my colleagues at major research universities that have subscriptions to all journals, I worked at a 300-person nonprofit research institute with a small library. So there I was - a scientist and a taxpayer - desperate to read the results of work that I helped pay for and work that might give me more knowledge than possessed by our doctors. And yet either I could not get the papers or I had to pay to read them without knowing if they would be helpful.

    Eisen, J. A. PLoS Biology 2.0. PLoS Biol 6, e48 (2008)

    Pourquoi le libre accs?

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0060048http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0060048http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0060048http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0060048http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0060048

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    Par accs libre cette littrature, nous entendons sa mise disposition gratuite sur lInternet public, permettant tout un chacun de lire, tlcharger, copier, transmettre, imprimer, chercher ou faire un lien vers le texte intgral de ces articles, les dissquer pour les indexer, sen servir de donnes pour un logiciel, ou sen servir toute autre fin lgale, sans barrire financire, lgale ou technique autre que celles indissociables de laccs et lutilisation dInternet.

    Texte complet en franais sur Libre accs linformation scientifique (INIST)

    Pourquoi le libre accs?

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electronic_Information_for_Librarieshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electronic_Information_for_Librarieshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electronic_Information_for_Librarieshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electronic_Information_for_Librarieshttp://openaccess.inist.fr/?Initiative-de-Budapest-pour-l

  • 2. Les 2 voies du libre accs

  • Les 2 voies du libre accs

    Les chiffres qui montrent notre politique en action

    Un chiffre

    Un autre chiffre

    Green open access = archives ouvertes Publications dposes et archives sur des serveurs tiers

    Diffrents types de publication, diffrents stades de publication

    Gold open access = revues en libre accs

    Diffrents modles conomiques : APC, barrire flottante, financement public, etc.

    Les 2 voies du libre accs

  • 2011 HAL-UPMC

    1991 xxx.lanl.gov qui

    deviendra arXiv 1997

    CogPrints

    2000 Cration du CCSD (CNRS)

    2008 Loi NIH (Etats-unis)

    1998 Cyberthses

    (Lyon II) 2001 HAL TEL

    2005 ARCHIMER HAL-INRIA

    HAL-INSERM

    1999 Open Archives

    Initiative

    2000 PubMed Central

    2001 PLoS

    Copernicus

    2013 CCSD = unit

    mixte

    Monde

    Les 2 voies du libre accs

    France

    2013 Obligation de dpt

    INRIA

    1999 revues.org

    2003 DOAJ

    1993 Serveur de

    preprints du

    CERN

    2013 Loi Allemagne Politique FNS

    (Suisse) Politique FRS

    (Belgique)

    2014 Episciences.org

    2012 Politique RCUK (Royaume-Uni)

    2002 BOAI

    Par : Steven

    De P

    olo

    - CC

    -BY - so

    urce : Flickr

    http://hal.upmc.fr/http://hal.upmc.fr/http://hal.upmc.fr/http://www.ccsd.cnrs.fr/http://openaccess.inist.fr/?La-politique-des-NIH-suite-et-finhttp://openaccess.inist.fr/?La-politique-des-NIH-suite-et-finhttp://openaccess.inist.fr/?La-politique-des-NIH-suite-et-finhttp://www.cybertheses.org/http://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/http://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/http://archimer.ifremer.fr/http://www.openarchives.org/http://www.openarchives.org/http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/about/intro/http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/about/intro/http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/about/intro/http://www.plos.org/http://www.copernicus.org/http://seism.inria.fr/hal/aide/spip.php?article327http://seism.inria.fr/hal/aide/spip.php?article327http://www.revues.org/http://www.doaj.org/http://openaccess.inist.fr/?Projet-de-loi-en-faveur-du-Librehttp://openaccess.inist.fr/?Le-Fonds-national-suisse-prend-enhttp://openaccess.inist.fr/?Position-belge-sur-le-Libre-Acceshttp://episciences.org/http://openaccess.inist.fr/?Le-gouvernement-britanniquehttp://openaccess.inist.fr/?Le-gouvernement-britanniquehttp://openaccess.inist.fr/?Le-gouvernement-britanniquehttp://openaccess.inist.fr/?Initiative-de-Budapest-pour-l

  • Gold open access : la voie dore

  • Developing an Effective Market for Open Access Article Processing Charges - Bo-Christer Bjrk and David Solomon - CC-BY

    Gold open access

  • Modle hybride Dans une revue sur abonnement, larticle peut tre en lecture gratuite, moyennant le paiement dun supplment (Lancet : 5000$)

    le cot des abonnements est-il diminu pour autant (double dipping)? - voir ici

    les articles sont-ils bien en libre accs? - voir l Ex : ACS AuthorChoice, Sponsorship Option (Elsevier), Online Open (Wiley-

    Blackwell)

    Les articles en lecture gratuite

    Articles des prix Nobel dans Cell

    Les revues prdateurs La liste de Jeffrey Beall, bibliothcaire lUniversit de Colorado : Potential, possible, or probable predatory scholarly open-access publishers

    Les faux amis et les vrais ennemis

    http://download.thelancet.com/flatcontentassets/authors/lancet-information-for-authors.pdfhttp://aoasg.org.au/addressing-the-double-dipping-charge/http://aoasg.org.au/not-all-hybrid-is-equal/http://pubs.acs.org/page/policy/authorchoice/index.htmlhttp://pubs.acs.org/page/policy/authorchoice/index.htmlhttp://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/authorsview.authors/fundingbodyagreementshttp://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/authorsview.authors/fundingbodyagreementshttp://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/authorsview.authors/fundingbodyagreementshttp://olabout.wiley.com/WileyCDA/Section/id-406241.htmlhttp://www.cell.com/cellpress/nobelprize2012http://scholarlyoa.com/publishers/

  • Financeurs de la recherche Wellcome Trust Union europenne Horizon 2020 FP7

    Qui paie?

    Ex. Royaume-Uni, voir : Pinfield S. The Cost of Gold Open Access: A Case Study of the UK [En ligne]. 12 octobre 2015. Disponible sur: < http://jao2015.sciencesconf.org/conference/jao2015/pages/Couperin_Paris_201510.pdf > Matthews D. Open access fees hike universities journal bills . In : Times Higher Education, 2015. Disponible sur: < https://www.timeshighereducation.com/news/open-access-fees-hike-universities-journal-bills >

  • Qui paie?

    Source : Wellcome Trust. The Reckoning: An Analysis of Wellcome Trust Open Access Spend 2013-14 [En ligne]. Wellcome Trust Blog. Disponible sur: < http://blog.wellcome.ac.uk/2015/03/03/the-reckoning-an-analysis-of-wellcome-trust-open-access-spend-2013-14/>

    The second key finding is that the average APC levied by hybrid journals is 64% higher than the average APC charged by a fully OA title. This higher average fee is despite the fact that hybrid journals also enjoy a revenue stream from subscriptions.

  • Qui paie?

    Source : Dutch boycott of Elsevier a game changer? | Unlocking Research [En ligne]. Disponible sur: < https://unlockingresearch.blog.lib.cam.ac.uk/?p=192 >

    Elsevier is the worlds largest academic publisher. According to their Annual Report the 2014 STM revenue was 2,048 million, with an operating profit of 762 million. This is a profit margin of 37%. That means if we pay an Article Processing Charge of $3000 then $1,170 of that (taxpayers) money goes directly to the shareholders of Elsevier. The numbers involved in this space are staggering. The Wellcome Trust stated in their report on 3 March 2015 The Reckoning: An Analysis of Wellcome Trust Open Access Spend 2013 14: The two traditional, subscription-based publishers (Elsevier and Wiley) represent some 40% of our total APC spend. And the RCUK has had similar results, as described in a Times Higher Education article on 16 April 2015 Publishers share 10m in APC payments: Publishers Elsevier and Wiley have each received about 2 million in article processing charges from 55 institutions as a result of RCUKs open access policy.

    http://www.relxgroup.com/investorcentre/reports 2007/Documents/2014/relxgroup_ar_2014.pdfhttps://unlockingresearch.blog.lib.cam.ac.uk/The Reckoning: An Analysis of Wellcome Trust Open Access Spend 2013 %E2%80%93 14https://unlockingresearch.blog.lib.cam.ac.uk/The Reckoning: An Analysis of Wellcome Trust Open Access Spend 2013 %E2%80%93 14https://unlockingresearch.blog.lib.cam.ac.uk/The Reckoning: An Analysis of Wellcome Trust Open Access Spend 2013 %E2%80%93 14https://unlockingresearch.blog.lib.cam.ac.uk/The Reckoning: An Analysis of Wellcome Trust Open Access Spend 2013 %E2%80%93 14https://unlockingresearch.blog.lib.cam.ac.uk/The Reckoning: An Analysis of Wellcome Trust Open Access Spend 2013 %E2%80%93 14https://unlockingresearch.blog.lib.cam.ac.uk/The Reckoning: An Analysis of Wellcome Trust Open Access Spend 2013 %E2%80%93 14https://unlockingresearch.blog.lib.cam.ac.uk/The Reckoning: An Analysis of Wellcome Trust Open Access Spend 2013 %E2%80%93 14https://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/news/publishers-share-10m-in-apc-payments/2019685.articlehttps://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/news/publishers-share-10m-in-apc-payments/2019685.article

  • Le juste prix?

    Source : Van Noorden R. Open access: The true cost of science publishing . Nature. 27 mars 2013. Vol. 495, n7442, p. 426-429. Disponible sur : < http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/495426a >

  • Source : Theo A. Gold Open Access : Counting the Costs . Ariadne. 3 dcembre 2012. Disponible sur : < http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/print/issue70/andrew >

    Voir aussi sur le site de lAustralian Open Access Support Group : Paying for Publication Cost of hybrid

    Le juste prix?

    http://aoasg.org.au/paying-for-publication/http://aoasg.org.au/paying-for-publication/http://aoasg.org.au/paying-for-publication/http://aoasg.org.au/cost-of-hybrid/http://aoasg.org.au/cost-of-hybrid/http://aoasg.org.au/cost-of-hybrid/http://aoasg.org.au/cost-of-hybrid/

  • Green open access : la voie verte

  • Auto-archivage

    Dpt sans retrait Garantie scientifique

    Possibilit de dposer des versions successives

    Modration de base peer review

    Respect des droits dauteur et dditeur

    Tous types de publication Dans HAL : de niveau scientifique recherche (pas de thse dexercice)

    A diffrents stades de publication Preprints = version auteur avant peer review

    Postprints = version auteur aprs peer review

    Publications = PDF diteur

    Documents non publis

    Les archives ouvertes

  • La position des diteurs

    http://www.oaspectrum.org

    http://www.sherpa.ac.uk/romeo/index.php

    http://www.sherpa.ac.uk/romeo

  • Droits dauto-archivage?

    Les droits peuvent tre diffrents pour un site web personnel et HAL. HAL = eprints repository, insititutionnal repository, etc. Un diteur peut avoir des politiques

    diffrentes en fonction de la revue : chercher par revue et non par diteur

    http://www.sherpa.ac.uk/romeo/index.php

  • Ex revue Springer

    http://www.sherpa.ac.uk/romeo/index.php

    embargo 12 mois pour dpt dans HAL

  • Manuscrit auteur de la version dfinitive de larticle accept pour publication, avec les modifications apportes par le comit de lecture, mais sans la mise en forme de lditeur

    = manuscrit accept, accepted manuscript preuves, proofs

    Le postprint

  • Les amis?

    http://repositories.webometrics.info/en/top_portals

  • ResearchGate, Academia et Mendeley Dans cette dition, ces trois services sont classs sous la rubrique Portails . Ce nest pas une situation courante, mais les auteurs dposent parfois leurs articles sur ces sites au lieu de les dposer dans leur archive institutionnelle. La valeur ajoute limite apporte par la gnration actuelle des logiciels darchives ouvertes et lincapacit des bibliothcaires et des webmestres de ces archives amliorer leurs options de crations de profil et de personnalisation conduisent cette malheureuse tendance mergente. Nous montrons donc la bonne performance de ces comptiteurs afin de susciter une plus grande prise de conscience : il est absolument ncessaire damliorer les archives ouvertes avec une forte orientation vers lutilisateur final (les auteurs ).

    Traduction de : Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientficas (CSIC) C. L. Corrected July 2015: New edition description. In : Ranking Web of Repositories [En ligne]. Disponible sur: < http://repositories.webometrics.info/en/node/29 > (consult le 1 septembre 2015).

    Les amis?

  • Les amis? Modle conomique

    Source : Hall G. Does Academia.edu Mean Open Access Is Becoming Irrelevant? [En ligne]. Media gifts. 18 octobre 2015. Disponible sur: < http://www.garyhall.info/journal/2015/10/18/does-academiaedu-mean-open-access-is-becoming-irrelevant.html > (consult le 28 octobre 2015)

    In the words of CEO Richard Price : The goal is to provide trending research data to R&D institutions that can improve the quality of their decisions by 10-20%. The kind of algorithm that R&D companies are looking for is a trending papers algorithm, analogous to Twitters trending topics algorithm. A trending papers algorithm would tell an R&D company which are the most impactful papers in a given research area in the last 24 hours, 7 days, 30 days, or any time period. Historically its been very difficult to get this kind of data. Scientists have printed papers out, and read them in their labs in un-trackable ways. As scientific activity is moving online, its becoming easier to track which papers are getting more attention from the top scientists.

    http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/information-culture/interview-with-richard-price-academia-edu-ceo/http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/information-culture/interview-with-richard-price-academia-edu-ceo/

  • Source : Hall G. Does Academia.edu Mean Open Access Is Becoming Irrelevant? [En ligne]. Media gifts. 18 octobre 2015. Disponible sur: < http://www.garyhall.info/journal/2015/10/18/does-academiaedu-mean-open-access-is-becoming-irrelevant.html > (consult le 28 octobre 2015)

    But just as Airbnb and Uber are parasitic on the public infrastructure and the investment that was made by cities a generation ago (roads, buildings, street lighting, etc.), so Academia.edu has a parasitical relationship to the public education system, in that these academics are labouring for it for free to help build its privately-owned for-profit platform by providing the aggregated input, data and attention value. We can thus see that posting on Academia.edu is not ethically and politically equivalent to making research available using an institutional open access repository at all.

    Les amis? Modle conomique

    http://www.mckinsey.com/Insights/Travel_Transportation/The_future_of_Airbnb_in_cities?cid=other-eml-alt-mip-mck-oth-1411http://www.mckinsey.com/Insights/Travel_Transportation/The_future_of_Airbnb_in_cities?cid=other-eml-alt-mip-mck-oth-1411http://www.mckinsey.com/Insights/Travel_Transportation/The_future_of_Airbnb_in_cities?cid=other-eml-alt-mip-mck-oth-1411

  • Les amis?

    Conditions de rutilisation des donnes tlcharges imprcises

    Dmarche individuelle

    Socit commerciale : for profit

    Les articles sont en accs libre sans formalits

    Dmarche pour lintrt gnral

    Etablissement public : non profit

    HAL : archivage prenne des articles dposs

    Post sur ResearchGate : Does ResearchGate's promotion of user/author 'self-archiving' help or harm the cause of open access publishing?

    Diffuser ses articles par le biais dun rseau social

    Dposer ses articles dans une archive ouverte

    ResearchGate propose dsormais des liens vers des sites tiers : il dtecte automatiquement le texte intgral dpos dans HAL et permet dy accder depuis RG

    https://www.researchgate.net/post/Does_ResearchGates_promotion_of_user_author_self-archiving_help_or_harm_the_cause_of_open_access_publishinghttps://www.researchgate.net/post/Does_ResearchGates_promotion_of_user_author_self-archiving_help_or_harm_the_cause_of_open_access_publishinghttps://www.researchgate.net/post/Does_ResearchGates_promotion_of_user_author_self-archiving_help_or_harm_the_cause_of_open_access_publishinghttps://www.researchgate.net/post/Does_ResearchGates_promotion_of_user_author_self-archiving_help_or_harm_the_cause_of_open_access_publishinghttps://www.researchgate.net/post/Does_ResearchGates_promotion_of_user_author_self-archiving_help_or_harm_the_cause_of_open_access_publishinghttps://www.researchgate.net/post/Does_ResearchGates_promotion_of_user_author_self-archiving_help_or_harm_the_cause_of_open_access_publishinghttps://www.researchgate.net/post/Does_ResearchGates_promotion_of_user_author_self-archiving_help_or_harm_the_cause_of_open_access_publishinghttps://www.researchgate.net/post/Does_ResearchGates_promotion_of_user_author_self-archiving_help_or_harm_the_cause_of_open_access_publishinghttps://www.researchgate.net/post/Does_ResearchGates_promotion_of_user_author_self-archiving_help_or_harm_the_cause_of_open_access_publishinghttps://www.researchgate.net/post/Does_ResearchGates_promotion_of_user_author_self-archiving_help_or_harm_the_cause_of_open_access_publishinghttps://www.researchgate.net/post/Does_ResearchGates_promotion_of_user_author_self-archiving_help_or_harm_the_cause_of_open_access_publishinghttps://www.researchgate.net/post/Does_ResearchGates_promotion_of_user_author_self-archiving_help_or_harm_the_cause_of_open_access_publishinghttps://www.researchgate.net/post/Does_ResearchGates_promotion_of_user_author_self-archiving_help_or_harm_the_cause_of_open_access_publishinghttps://www.researchgate.net/post/Does_ResearchGates_promotion_of_user_author_self-archiving_help_or_harm_the_cause_of_open_access_publishinghttps://www.researchgate.net/post/Does_ResearchGates_promotion_of_user_author_self-archiving_help_or_harm_the_cause_of_open_access_publishinghttps://www.researchgate.net/post/Does_ResearchGates_promotion_of_user_author_self-archiving_help_or_harm_the_cause_of_open_access_publishinghttps://www.researchgate.net/post/Does_ResearchGates_promotion_of_user_author_self-archiving_help_or_harm_the_cause_of_open_access_publishinghttps://www.researchgate.net/post/Does_ResearchGates_promotion_of_user_author_self-archiving_help_or_harm_the_cause_of_open_access_publishinghttps://www.researchgate.net/post/Does_ResearchGates_promotion_of_user_author_self-archiving_help_or_harm_the_cause_of_open_access_publishinghttps://www.researchgate.net/post/Does_ResearchGates_promotion_of_user_author_self-archiving_help_or_harm_the_cause_of_open_access_publishing

  • Par hamed masoumi - Source : Flickr

    3. Perspectives

    http://www.flickr.com/photos/tryingyouth/

  • Si nous voulons que tout reste tel que cest, il faut que tout change. Le Gupard, Giuseppe Tomasi di Lampedusa, trad. Jean-Paul Manganaro

    Perspectives

  • Developing an Effective Market for Open Access Article Processing Charges - Bo-Christer Bjrk and David Solomon - CC-BY

    Perspectives

  • Perspectives

    Source : Kassab S. Perceptions de lOpen Access par les marchs financiers [En ligne]. 12 octobre 2015. Disponible sur:

  • Perspectives

    Source : Kassab S. Perceptions de lOpen Access par les marchs financiers [En ligne]. 12 octobre 2015. Disponible sur:

  • Perspectives The rise of Open Access appears to inflict little or no damage on the leading subscription publishers. Subscription publishing appears in good

    health. The threat posed by OA seems to recede. OA funding may in fact be adding to the

    profits of STM.

    Source : Aspesi C., Luong H. Reed Elsevier: Goodbye to Berlin - The Fading Threat of Open Access (Upgrade to Market-Perform) [En ligne]. 24 septembre 2014. Disponible sur: < http://www.richardpoynder.co.uk/Aspesi.pdf > (consult le 27 octobre 2015)

  • http://www.leru.org/files/general/LERU%20Statement%20Moving%20Forwards%20on%20Open%20Access(1).pdf

    Perspectives

    http://www.leru.org/files/general/LERU Statement Moving Forwards on Open Access(1).pdfhttp://www.leru.org/files/general/LERU Statement Moving Forwards on Open Access(1).pdf