Cuba population, history and resources 1907

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Auteurs. Olmsted, V. H. ; Gannett, H. / Ouvrage patrimonial de la Bibliothèque numérique Manioc. Service commun de la documentation, Université des Antilles et de la Guyane. Institut des Hautes Etudes de l’Amérique latine (IHEAL), Université Sorbonne Nouvelle - Paris 3.

Text of Cuba population, history and resources 1907

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  • MANIOC.orgBibliothque Pierre-Monbeig

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  • CUBA POPULATION, HISTORY,

    AND RESOURCES 1907

    MANIOC.orgBibliothque Pierre-Monbeig

    IHEAL CREDA - Universit Sorbonne Nouvelle - Paris 3

    MANIOC.orgRseau des bibliothques

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  • JOS MIGUEL GMEZ, SECOND PRESIDENT OF CUBA

  • CUBA POPULATION, HISTORY

    AND RESOURCES 1907

    COMPILED BY VICTOR H. OLMSTED,

    DIRECTOR, AND HENRY GANNETT,

    ASSISTANT DIRECTOR : CENSUS OF

    CUBA, TAKEN IN THE YEAR 1907

    UNITED STATES BUREAU OF THE CENSUS WASHINGTON: 1909

  • COMPOSITION AND PRESSWORK I. H. BLANCHARD, NEW YORK

    BINDING J. F. TAPLEY CO., NEW YORK

  • CONTENTS.

    Page. Preliminary statement 7 General description 9

    Location and area 9 Topography 9 Orography 10 Hydrography 11 Geology 11 Flora 12 Fauna 12

    Natural resources 14 Products of the animal kingdom 14 Products of the vegetable kingdom 16 Products of the mineral kingdom 26

    History 28 Discovery and settlement 28 Cuba under Spanish rule 29 Attitude of the United States 37 Spanish-American war 39 First American intervention 40 Republic of Cuba 41 Appeal to United States 42 Peace commission 42 Election of President Gmez 44

    Climate 45 Temperature 45 Rainfall 50 Wind direction 52 Atmospheric pressure 53

    Provinces and Isle of Pines 55 Pinar del Ro 55 Habana 57 Isle of Pines 58 Matanzas 61 Santa Clara 62 Camagey 63 Oriente 64

    Sugar and allied industries 69 Postal and telegraph service 72

    Page. Money, banks, and banking 77 Foreign commerce 80 Movement of shipping 95 Immigration 105 Criminal jurisdiction and procedure 110 Prisons, asylums, and hospitals 115

    Prisoners confined in penal institu-tions 115

    Asylums for orphans, foundlings, and aged people 116

    Hospitals 116 The insane 117

    Transportation by railroads and steam-ship lines 119

    Railroads 119 Coastwise steamship lines 121 Steamship communication with

    foreign countries 121 Public schools 122 Vital statistics 124

    Vital statistics of Habana 129 Population 131

    Total population 131 Urban population 136 Density of population 137 Center of population 140 Sex, color, and nativity 141 Age, sex, color, and nativity 155 Persons in the prime of life 163 Citizenship 164 Population 21 years of age and over 168 Males of voting age 169 Conjugal condition 176 Illigitimate children 200 Children of school age 203 School attendance 204 Literacy 205 Occupations 208 Families and dwellings 221

    POPULATION TABLES.

    Page. Table 1.Population, 1774 to 1907 231 Table 2.Population of provinces,

    1861 to 1907 231 Table 3.Population of municipalities 231 Table 4.Cities and towns 233 Table 5.Sex, general nativity, and

    color, by provinces 235 Table 6.Age and sex, by provinces 235 Table 7.Nativity, color, sex, and age 236 Table 8.Birthplace, by provinces 237 Table 9.Sex, color, and birthplace 237 Table 10.Citizenship, by provinces 238

    Page. Table 11.Male population 21 years of

    age, by color, nativity, citizenship, and literacy 238

    Table 12.Sex, color, nativity, citizen-ship, and age 239

    Table 13.Conjugal condition, by prov-inces 241

    Table 14.Conjugal condition, color, nativity, and sex 241

    Table 15.Conjugal condition, color, nativity, sex, and age 242

    Table 16.Illegitimate children, by age, sex, color, and nativity 245

    (5)

  • 6 CONTENTS.

    Page. Table 17.School attendance and liter-

    acy, by provinces 245 Table 18.Population at least 10 years

    of age, by age, sex, color, nativity, and literacy 246

    Table 19.Population attending school, by months, sex, age, color, and nativity 248

    Table 20.General groups of occupa-tions, sex, color, and nativ-ity, by provinces 249

    Table 21.General groups of occupa-tions, age, sex, color and nativity 252

    Table 22.Selected occupations, sex, color, and nativity 255

    Table 23.Selected occupations, sex, and age 258

    Page. Table 24.Selected occupations, sex,

    and literacy 262 Table 25.Selected occupations, sex,

    and conjugal condition 265 Table 26.Selected occupations, sex,

    and place of birth 267 Table 27.Selected occupations, by

    provinces 271 Table 28.Number and size of families,

    by provinces 274 Table 29.Number and average size of

    families, by nativity and color of head, by provinces 274

    Table 30.Families and dwellings, by provinces 275

    ILLUSTRATIONS.

    Facing page. Jos Miguel Gmez, Second President of

    Cuba Frontispiece A tobacco plant 16 Setting out young tobacco plants 17 Santiago de Cuba 32 City of Puerto Principe 33 Sugar plantation in the Agricultural

    station of Santiago de las Vegas 36 Royal palms in the vicinity of Habana 37 Royal college of Belen, Habana 44 Matanzas Institute 45 Interior of the cave of Ballamar, near

    Matanzas 48 Surrender tree near San Juan Hill 49 An avenue of royal palms, Matanzas 64 Climbing the royal palm 65 Coconut trees 68 A cocoa grove 69 Tobacco pack train 76 Roping cattle 77

    Facing page. Dimas, a village of Pinar del Ro 80 City of Pinar del Ro 81 Sorting tobacco and putting it in bundles 96 Baling tobacco 97 Transferring cane to sugar mill 100 Hauling sugar cane from field 101 Native agricultural implements 108 Plowing with oxen 109 City of Trinidad 112 City of Nuevitas 113 Bridge over Yumuri river, Matanzas 128 City of Baracoa and harbor entrance 129 Native fruits 132 Ready to cut pines and bananas 133 Central Conchita, Matanzas 140 Central and cane field, Santa Clara 141 City of Habana 144 City of Habana 145 A tobacco plantation 160 Tobacco drying house 161

  • PRELIMINARY STATEMENT.

    In order to meet the demand in the United States for information regard-ing Cuba, its population, resources, products, climate, etc., the Provisional Governor of the Republic authorized the Director of the Cuban Census of 1907, to prepare a compendium containing data compiled from the census reports of 1899 and 1907, and other reliable sources.

    Under this authorization the information contained in the present volume is presented. The data have been taken, principally, from the Cuban Census reports referred to above, and from the Handbook on Cuba prepared by Seor Gonzalo de Quesada, Minister of Cuba to the United States, which was published in 1905 by the International Bureau of the American Repub-lics, at Washington, D. C.

    (7)

  • GENERAL DESCRIPTION.

    LOCATION AND AREA.

    Cuba is the largest, most populous, and most western island of the Antilles. Shaped like the arc of a circle, with its convex side to the north, it extends from 74 to 85 west longitude and from 19 40 to 23 33' north latitude. It is about 100 miles from Florida, being separated from it by the strait of the same name. About 50 miles to the east is Haiti; about 85 miles to the south is Jamaica; and about 130 miles to the west is the Yucatan peninsula. Its length is about 730 miles (1,594 kilometers); its breadth differs, ranging from 160 miles (200 kilometers), in Oriente province, to 22 miles (40 kilo-meters), in Habana province. Its total area is 44,164 square miles, of which Cuba occupies 41,634 square miles, the Isle of Pines, 1,180, and the other islands and keys, 1,350. Cuba is larger than Portugal, Belgium, or the Netherlands, and somewhat smaller than Pennsylvania or Virginia.

    From a military point of view Cuba occupies a strong strategic position, controlling the entrance of the Gulf of Mexico by the Strait of Florida, the Windward Passage to the Caribbean Sea between Cuba and Haiti, and the Yucatan Channel connecting the Gulf of Mexico with the Caribbean Sea. The first and last of these are the only entrances to the Gulf of Mexico, which is thus controlled completely by the Island of Cuba.

    The government of Cuba has jurisdiction not only over the island of that name, but also over the Isle of Pines, lying directly to the south of it, and more than a thousand islets and reefs scattered along its northern and southern coasts.

    TOPOGRAPHY.

    The north coast is for the most part steep and rocky, and, in the provinces of Matanzas, Santa Clara, and Camagiiey, it is bordered by lines of islands and reefs of coral formation, through which passage is extremely intricate and difficult. These islands are low, are in the main covered with mangrove forests, and contain few inhabitants.

    The coast in the western part of the island is low, the bluffs ranging about 100 feet in height in Pinar del Ro and rising gradually eastward. In Matan-zas they reach 500 feet in altitude. In Santa Clara and Camagey they are lower, but in Oriente the coast is abrupt and rugged; being almost moun-tainous and rising in a succession of terraces.

    (9) 2

  • 10 GENERAL DESCRIPTION.

    The south coast from Cape Maisi to Cape Cruz is mountainous. Indeed, from Santiago westward to Cape Cruz the Sierra Maestra rises abruptly from the water to altitudes of several thousand feet. The shores of the Gulf of Buena Esparanza are low, and with the exception of a short stretch between Trinida