RFID Types

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  • 7/29/2019 RFID Types


    RFID/Wireless SystemApplicationHome Work-1

    [Pick the date]

    Oklahoma State University

    Rajesh Kumar Velu &Yogesh Doravari

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    Barcode for this cell was studied at Wal-Mart for the following various factors:

    1. Occlusions2. Angle of view3. Distance (Range)

    1. OCCLUSIONWhen the first and the last line of the barcode is covered and read by the scanner, it reads

    the barcode perfectly. When other parts of the barcode are covered the scanner fails to

    read it. The pictures explain the above observation made with a greater clarity.

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    FIG. Doesnt read on covering the first two lines

    FIG. Fails when the center of the barcode is covered

    FIG. Reads when the first line of the barcode is covered

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    2. ANGLE OF VIEW:The barcode was placed in different angles and using the scanner it was scanned and we

    got the following observation:

    1. When the barcode is kept at 90 degrees it couldnt scan.2. The barcode was read at all angles where the light could focus the entire barcode.3. When the light was inclined and a portion of the barcode wasnt scanned it didnt

    read otherwise at all inclined positions in the space the scanner could read.

    FIG. At 90 degree the scanner couldnt read

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    FIG. Scans at all other angle in the space

    FIG. When the barcode is kept at an angle tilted to the scanner and doesnt cover the

    entire barcode it fails to read(multiple red lines indicating it couldnt read)

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    3. RANGE :The maximum distance upto which the scanner was able to read the barcode was found

    out to be approximately 40 cm.

    FIG. Maximum distance at which the barcode was scanned


    A barcode is made up of white and black lines Each and every number under the barcode is defined by four lines. Four lines vary in thickness. Thinnest line is given as 1 and so on. (the thickest as 4) Each bar code starts and ends with 101. There are two sets of code manufacturer code and product code which is separated by a

    set of 3 lines called as guard bars.

    This was the observation we made during our experiment on how the information on the barcode

    is encoded

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    Question 3: Perform patent (Google/patents and freepatentonline are appropriate locations)

    search to identify 3 biometric and 3 non-biometric AIT patents. For each patent you have

    identified, please do the following

    Three Biometric AIT Patents with their details:

    1. Title: Biometric identification of individuals by use of subcutaneous vein patternsInventor: David Oswald Clayden

    Original Assignee: British Technology Group Ltd.

    Issue date: Jul 28, 1998

    Patent number: 5787185

    Fig.1 is a perspective view of apparatus suitable for scanning vein pattern.

    How the AIT works: An individual whose identity is to be verified is positioned by gripping to

    a reference handle. An optional side stop (5) against which the side of the hand abuts provides an

    additional constraint. Lights (7, 9, 11, and 13) are provided from four different directions to

    provide an infra-red-rich emission spectrum. A video camera (15) is positioned above the hand

    and produces a raster-scan image of the back of the hand. The image taken of the hand is

    transferred to a frame store where the first signal processing step begins. The amplitude of each

    pixel is weighted to enhance the local contrast and sent for comparison with a pre-stored image

    of the person's hand.

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    1. Helps determine the location of arteries and veins in the human body and can show any

    variance in position from a previous reading; this can help understand the condition of the arteryor vein

    2. Helps in criminal prosecution of an individual based on a previous image of the person body



    1. Difficulty in locating the presence of blood vessels on the body due to body hair, non-planar

    surface and bad lighting.

    Example of Application: We found this particular biometric amusing owing to its

    application by the CIA/FBI in the sentencing of Khalid Sheikh Mohammed an Al-Qaeda

    terrorist for the murder of Wall street journalist Daniel Pearl

    2. Title: Improved race timing systemInventor: Daniel Howell

    Original Assignee: Chronotrack Systems, LLC

    Issue date: May 28, 2010

    Patent number: EP2435989 A1 (EPEuropean Patent)

    14. RFID Antenna16. A Timing Tag

    12. Controller

    18. Remote Server

    How the AIT works: An electronic timing system for timing of athletic events

    comprising: a radio-frequency identification antenna; a portable timing controller having

    one or more radio-frequency identification readers, a touch-panel computer electrically

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    coupled to said one or more readers to manage data coming into said one or more readers,

    first input/output means for exchanging data with said radio-frequency identification

    antenna, and second input/output means for exchanging data with a remote server; and a

    radio-frequency identification timing tag that is configured for attachment to an athlete,

    said timing tag and said antenna having means for wirelessly communicating data

    between one another.

    Example of Application: We found a true story on how this invention came into being , a

    story about a how a father witnessed his son in an off road motor-cycling accident. This is

    technology collecting information from a drivers helmet via a bar code.


    Now days this technology is used to calculate the drivers lap times and can show a difference

    between two drivers up to a 400th

    of a second in difference. The accuracy stands at 99.8% and

    does not interfere with EMI from external sources as the driver crosses the RFID antenna.

    De merits:

    Distances less than 400th

    of a second cannot be calculated accurately without a certain margin of

    error and this can increase as the time between two drivers decrease

    3. Title: Iris Imaging and Iris based IdentificationInventor: Abramovich, Gil (Niskayuna, NY, US)

    Perera, Ambalangoda Gurunnanselage Amitha (Clifton Park, NY, US)

    Tait, Robert William (Niskayuna, NY, US)

    Wheeler, Frederick Wilson (Niskayuna, NY, US)

    Original Assignee: General Electric Company (Schenectady, NY, US)

    Issue date: 10/01/2009

    Patent number: 20090245594

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    How the AIT works: The iris of an individual is illuminated with the help of electromagnetic

    radiation that is chosen based on the color of the iris. The illumination from the spectrum chosen

    details information from iris and this can be used to identify a specific person of interest.


    1. This technology is widely used in industries where security of information is of utmostimportance.

    2. The Patterns of the iris are apparently stable throughout life and do not change meaningthat the results stay the same.

    3. The time required to ID a person is generally less than a secondDe merits:

    1. The iris scanned would have difficulty in reading the iris if the distance is more than 1 meter

    2. Partially closed eyes cannot be read

    3. The illumination should not be visible or bright light

    Three Non-Biometric AIT Patents with their details:

    1. Title : High temperature RFID tagInventor:Nicholson, Mark (Scotts Valley, CA)

    Monahan, Brian (Santa Cruz, CA)

    Issue Date: 10/26/1999

    Assignee: Escort Memory Systems (Scotts Valley, CA)

    Patent Number: 5973599

    How the AIT Works: A high temperature RFID tag is described which has a survival

    temperature in the range of approximately -40 C. to 300 C. and an operating temperature of

    approximately -20 C. to 200 C. The RFID tag comprises a housing comprising a first thermally

    resistant material and having a base and a top, and a circuit board substrate comprising a second

    thermally resistant material which is encapsulated within the housing.

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    The system typically contains of one or more RFID transponders or tags (Fig.10) . Fig.12 is an

    antenna used to communicate with at least one of the tags and Fig. 14 is a controller used to for

    managing the communication interface. The host system Fig.16 interfaces with the controller

    (14) and directs the interrogation of the tags (10) disposed on or embedded in the product carriers

    (11) and any following action via parallel or serial or bus communication (18).


    1. It has a wide range of application that include Vehicle parts and toxic waste dumptracking

    2. The setup cost involved is very cheap


    1. Owing to the high temperatures these RFIDs are made to work under their longevity islow


    1. Toxic waste disposal trucks

    2. Inventory management for laboratory and medical equipment

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    2.Title: GPS receiver

    Inventor: Matsumoto, Kazumi (Shiojiri, JP)

    Terashima, Maho (Matsumoto, JP)

    Issue date: 1/19/2010

    Awardee: Seiko Epson Corporation (Tokyo, JP)Patent Number: 7649494

    How the AIT Works: A GPS receiver which performs correlation processing by using replicas

    of C/A (Clear and Acquisition or Coarse and Access) codes generated in the GPS receiver after a

    GPS signal received from a GPS satellite is subjected to accumulating processing, wherein in the

    accumulating processing, a plurality of signals for integrating in the GPS receiver by predicting

    modulation of the GPS signal by a navigation message are integrated with the received GPS

    signal, and results of the integration are accumulatively added. GPS works on triangulating the

    co-ordinates of the object across a plane.

    Merits of the GPS:

    1. The system employed is a robust one meaning there no sensitive instruments in thisdevice

    2. The accuracy provided by a GPS device is very high with a margin of error of about 1foot to 1.5 feet on average.


    1. It susceptible to RF jams and interferences.

    2. Obstacles like buildings and trees can deflect the signal, causing your position on the GPS

    screen to be off by as much as 100 feet

    Although a very common RFID used in daily life, we found this patent very helpful in

    understanding how the GPS works in greater detail

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    3.Title: System and method for detecting emplacement of improvised explosive devices

    Inventor: Steadman, Robert L. (Mansfield, MA, US)

    Fitzgerald, James (Westford, MA, US)

    Original Assignee: Textron Systems Corporation (Wilmington, MA, US)

    Award Date: 10/04/2011

    Patent Number: 8031068

    How the AIT works: An explosive device detection system includes sensors and base station

    that detect and report on suspected Improvised Explosive Devices (IED) or landmine

    emplacement activity within a geographic area. When disposed within a geographic area, each

    sensor forms part of a wireless communications network which allows communication amongneighboring sensors. As a sensor detects activity in its proximity, such as activity that indicates

    emplacement of an IED, the sensor transmits a reporting signal through the network to the base


    The neighboring sensors receive and transmit the reporting signal in a sequential manner towardthe base station. Because the reporting signal takes multiple hops toward the base station, the

    sensors do not require large amounts of power to transmit the signal. Furthermore, the detection

    system allows detection of IED emplacement within the geographic area as the activity occurs.

    As a result, the base station can direct mobile response units to take immediate responsive action

    to prevent detonation of the IED's.

    An indication of how the display would look if an IED was detected,

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    Merits of this RFID:

    1. Power consumed to run the device is extremely low2. The representation provided by these devices tends to be very lucid amid a 3D terrain as

    can be seen above


    1. There is always a possibility that the signal can be disrupted by electromagnetic waves

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    Question 4:

    Implementing RFIDs in Guns:

    Off late we have witnessed school massacres made by guns not owned by the accused but in

    many cases from their parents or friends or stolen from their owners. Looking at this one solutionthat would cross our mind would be to implement an RFID in a gun that would link it to the user.

    This would mean that only when the user holds the gun would the trigger activate and even if the

    gun were to be close to the owner it still wouldnt unlock.

    The diagram below contains the circuit diagram of this RFID along with an explanation of how it


    Working Principle and Design of Product:

    Here we have a passive a RFID linked to the user in the form of a ring or watch. A unique

    number is embedded in this RFID. The gun is fixed with an RFID reader that can identify the

    unique number from the user once this has been done the command for approval or denial is sent

    to the micro controller as can be seen from the figure.

    The objective of the micro controller is to either signal the solenoid to remain stationary

    or to move releasing the trigger from its locked position based on the verification obtained.

    The circuit diagram appears to be very simple to implement and is also very cheap. We would

    estimate that the total cost should not be more than 50 USD. The RFID would work on a

    frequency of about 10-15 MHz

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    Addressing the relevant concern:

    Once the above idea is implemented, the user of a gun can be certain that his gun cannot be used

    without him holding the trigger. So even if the user was for example 15 cm away from his gun

    the antenna is designed to not be able to verify the ID of that person unless he holds the handle of

    the gun and if someone were to steal your gun and aim it at you the trigger would just not pull.

    One of the main advantages of this technology is the time it takes to verify the user and release

    the trigger from the locked position. This should not take more than a quarter of a second.

    So if you decided to shoot when you are ready, the gun would be ready too.

    We strongly believe that implementing this would definitely decrease gun related deaths in the

    U.S drastically as can be seen from the Newtown massacre where the suspect used his mothers

    guns for the rampage.